Power sector reforms in nigeria: implications for agro-manufacturing industry

Abstract The main objective of this paper is to examine the nexus between the reforms that have been carried out in Nigeria concerning the power sector, and the implications of the reforms on the transformation of agro-allied industries. The power sector, no doubt, can be said to have the potential that can propel national development considering the overall importance of energy to the survival of the nation in terms of job creation, industrial development and sustenance as well increase in revenue generation and Foreign Direct Investment opportunities, among others. The unfortunate situation, however, is that in spite of a number of policies enunciated by successive governments aimed at improving on the power sector, not much has been achieved. The multiplier effect of this kind of development has been seen in the widespread epileptic power shortages, downward spiral of efforts towards industrial development drive; unemployment, shortage of national revenue accruing to government coffers, bourgeoning and rising poverty levels, to mention but a few. All of these have further contributed to the growing army of problems currently being witnessed in the country at the moment. This study is a theoretical exposition of the existing works of scholars and experts in the broader field of power sector reforms. The paper is exploratory in structure and method of its investigation. The study concludes and recommends that in view of the prevailing socio-economic circumstances in Nigeria, genuine reforms in the energy sector devoid of political rhetorics will go a long way in mitigating some of the challenges of contemporary times in the power sector

Canice Erunke Canice erunke

The effect of moisture content on the performance of melkassa multicrop thresher in some cereal crops

The threshing quality of the machine was affected by moisture content. This parameter was one of the main causes of production losses. In Ethiopia, this problem was highly observed in the farm area during threshing. Therefore, the main aim of this research was, to minimize production losses during threshing by reducing the effect of moisture content on the crop, to improve threshing capacity, threshing and cleaning efficiency, to reduces fuel consumption, and to minimize grain damage by the machine during threshing. The experiment was done at four-time replication in the moisture level of 14%, 18%, and 22% for three selected cereal crops (barley, wheat, and tef) with a completely randomized design (RCBD) and 4 replicates as-block giving 12 total experimental units. Crop moisture content, size of the grain, sphericity, angle of repose, density, thousand-grain mass and coefficient of friction as well as threshing capacity, threshing efficiency, cleaning efficiency, germination rate, fuel consumption, and grain breakages were the parameters used to evaluate the performance of the thresher. Threshing capacity, threshing and cleaning efficiency, and density of grains showed decreased, as moisture content of crops increased. The other parameters mentioned above were increased with moisture content. A combined mean analysis of variances on the performance of thresher was significant at (p 0.05). The recommended amount of moisture content in this study was 14% because the result obtained by 14% moisture level was preferable to other moisture levels. At 14% of moisture content, the threshing capacity was (208.750, 285.45 and 68.181) kg/hr, threshing, and cleaning efficiency (%) were (98.603, 99.330 and 99.49 and 97.101, 98.22 and 93.731 respectively). Percentage of germination rate was (94.25, 94.50, and 91.25) and the amount of fuel consumption was also (1.14, 1.72, 1.70) l/hr., for barley, wheat, and tef crops respectively.

Dessye Dessye

Le tafal-djéguélé : une pratique et expression culturelle à l’épreuve des mutations sociales

Le 05 décembre 2012, les pratiques et expressions culturelles liées au balafon des communautés sénoufo du Mali, du Burkina Faso et de la Côte d’Ivoire ont été inscrites sur la Liste représentative du patrimoine culturel immatériel de l’humanité. Le tafal-djéguélé est une pratique et expression culturelle liée au balafon des Sénoufo de Côte d’Ivoire. Deux raisons principales fondent son usage : amener les laboureurs à la houe à se surpasser d’une part, et magnifier les valeurs des senambélé1 d’autre part, notamment celles en rapport avec le labour étant donné que le sénoufo est agriculteur par essence. Toutefois, en raison de certains changements sociaux, le tafal-djéguélése pratique de moins en moins. Cette situation prive le senanw d’aujourd’hui d’un cadre majeur d’enseignement et de diffusion de valeurs, et pose ainsi la question de leur transmission aux générations actuelles et futures. Cet article vise à démontrer comment la faible pratique du tafal-djéguélé empêche de nos jours la transmission de "valeurs- références" en pays sénoufo, mais aussi à proposer des pistes de solutions.


Is decision-making process a mediator of the relationship between economic factor and international academic destination?

International students are the bedrocks of the global higher education market. Thus, worldwide, higher education institutions (HEIs) focus most international marketing efforts on understanding the complexities surrounding this student market. Recent studies on international higher education reveal the choices made by this student cohort and a wide variety of factors influencing such selections. This present study focuses on a student decision that is made under a set of options. Using structural equation modelling (SEM), this study aims to investigate the relationships of economic factor and decision-making process with the choice of international academic destination. Results, conclusions, and recommendations are discussed.

Johnny Amora Johnny amora

Human resource management - mind map on traditional functions of hrm

Human resource management refers to the process of employing people, training them, compensating, and developing policies and strategies to keep them (Storey, 2016). Personnel management is an administrative specialisation that focuses on hiring and developing employees to become valuable to the organisation (Bondarouk, Trullen, and Valverde, 2016). Management of personnel can be characterised as a satisfied workforce being achieved, used, and maintained (Sheehan, Garavan & Carbery, 2014). It constitutes an essential aspect of the management of employees in the organisation and their connection. According to Schroeder (2012, p.4), personnel management is achieved to help organisational, individual, and social goals, as the planning, organisation, offsetting, and maintaining of people. Vargas et al. (2018, p. 3052) add that personnel management is the element that primarily deals with human organisational resources. Management of personnel covers job, development, and compensation functions. In consultation with other departments, the personnel management performs these functions principally (Vargas et al., 2018, p. 3053)

Zamzam Abdelazim Zamzam abdelazim

Comparison of oxygenation and ventilation parameters between proseal laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgeries: a prospective observational study

Introduction: Use of endotracheal tube (ETT) has many limitations. There is a need for an airway device with similar safety and good side effect profile. In this prospective observational study, the oxygenation and ventilation parameters between patients who were inserted Proseal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) or ETT for laparoscopic surgeries were compared. Materials and Methods: After ethical committee approval, informed consent was obtained from sixty patients (thirty in each group) posted for elective laparoscopic surgery. Following induction of general anaesthesia and paralysis, PLMA or ETT was inserted and pressure control mode was used for ventilation. The following parameters were measured: a. Oxygen saturation and changes in FiO2 needed to ensure a target SpO2> 95%, EtCO2 and changes in respiratory rate and inspiratory pressure needed to ensure a target EtCO2 between 35-45 mmHg. b. Insertion characteristics of airway device and gastric tube, hemodynamic responses, incidence of complications. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used to analyze qualitative data. Independent t test was used to assess quantitative variables. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the outcome measures over time adjusted for duration of surgery and anaesthesia. P values<0> Results: Both groups were comparable with respect to age, gender and weight. Oxygenation and ventilation parameters achieved with both ETT and PLMA were comparable and satisfactory. Haemodynamic parameters increased significantly in ETT group compared to PLMA group during airway insertion and removal. Also, postoperative sore throat was comparatively less in the PLMA group. Conclusion: Hence we conclude that PLMA may be considered as an alternative to ETT in airway management of patients undergoing laparoscopic surgeries with comparable oxygenation and ventilation parameters and improved side effect profile.

Kamal Singh Kamal singh

Marketing management in business

There is a close relationship between a marketing strategy and its ability to realise its mission, vision, and business strategy. A case in point is the Nike brand that focuses on creating meaningful stories for its loyal fan base. It achieves this by inducing emotions into the customer base through "emotional branding" to realise its vision of expanding human potential by creating groundbreaking sports innovations. Nike's marketing campaign strategy involves building meaningful stories and tag lines using a traditional narrative of a hero who overcomes every challenge brought forth through its slogan of "Just Do It." The brand also has a distribution strategy of using subsidiaries like Converse, Jordan, and Hurley and channels like retailers, e-commerce, and supermarkets to reach out to millions of its customers (Mahdi, Abbas, Mazar, & George, 2015). To achieve its mission of bringing innovation and inspiration to every athlete globally, the brand has invested in top-notch technologies like hyper-adapt as part of a marketing strategy.

Zamzam Abdelazim Zamzam abdelazim

Diversity of spiders as influenced by cultivation techniques in rice

Field studies were carried out in wet seasons of 2014 and 2015 in rice fields of College Farm, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to understand the abundance and biodiversity of spiders in varied rice cultivation systems. Design of the experiment was split plot with three main modules, viz., transplanted, broadcasted and drum sown rice and subtreatments under each main module included three plant protection methods viz., organic protection, farmers’ practices and ‘no protection’ practices. Results showed that predator numbers in ‘no protection’ and organic protection plots of all main treatments were more than in farmers’ practices indicating the impact of the chemical pesticides. A total of 22 genera of spiders belonging to 12 families were recorded which comprised of seven guilds based on their hunting strategies and microhabitats. Shannon diversity index ranged between 1.83 and 2.26 and Pielou’s evenness index was 0.59-0.72 in two years of study indicating a stable ecosystem and even species distribution in rice crop at Rajendranagar. Study of the guild assemblage indicated that orb-weavers constituted 28.1% of the population, ground runners 23.51%, space web builders 18.38%, sheet-web builders 13.12%, stalkers 8.04% and ambushers made upto 0.38% of the spider population. Understanding the vertical stratification of various spider genera on the plant gave further insight into the prey preferences of these predators.

Gorthi anitha

Bacterial load on suture material after surgical removal of third molars – a comparative clinical studies between silk suture vs antibacterial suture

Oral cavity harbors a complex network of microorganisms which are in steady state of equilibrium with another microflora. Surgical removal of third molar is a very common procedure in oral surgery and suturing of surgical site is a crucial component determining success of wound healing. These suture materials sometime act a nidus of infection because of potential adherence of bacteria to its rough surfaces which may lead to surgical site infection. AIM- The aim of this study was to compare bacterial load on normal silk suture over antibacterial suture following third molar removal in 50 healthy individuals free of any systemic and local pathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS – A microbiological analysis using culture sensitivity test of distal most suture was evaluated after 7 days of procedure. RESULT - In relation to the colony count silk group showed higher number of colonization with a median of 80,000 cfu/ml. Relatively on the other side, antibacterial showed significant decrease in number of colonization with a median of 11,000 cfu/ml (p value < 0.0005). CONCLUSION – Antibacterial sutures group showed statistically significant reduction in bacterial count and can be possible alternative in patients who are unable to maintain good oral hygiene.

Manish anand

Unveiling of cannabidiol in the treatment of rare childhood epilepsies: dravet and lennox gastaut syndromes

In childhood, epilepsy is the most common globally widespread neurological problem, usually with serious consequences for this most critical period of development. Dravet and Lennox Gastaut syndromes are two forms of rare and severe treatment resistant epilepsies that occur early in the life. These resistant epilepsies recognised by continuous unrelenting seizures of many types including the occurrence of status epilepticus. In addition, it is associated with the development of behavioural, neurological, cognitive deficits and the sequelae of increased risk of mortality rate. Historically, cannabis was found to possess several medical benefits including its use for epilepsy. In this review, information and data were extracted from 99 references using PubMed and Google Scholar (November, 2021). Data with clinical evidence on cannabidiol regarding its efficacy on Dravet syndrome and Lennox Gastaut syndrome, mechanism of action, safety, pharmacokinetic properties and interactions with anti-epileptic medications were all reviewed and discussed. Highly purified cannabidiol is a cannabis derived compound that is suggested in recent research as an add-on therapy to the existing treatment of both resistant epileptic types; since it is able to reduce the duration, frequency and severity of seizure disorders. It is also characterised with multiple signalling transduction mechanisms, primarily via inhibition of excitatory and potentiation of inhibitory pathways.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Mediterranean journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

Analyse des erreurs dans la production écrite des étudiants de fle à l’université du ghana

Cet article montre l’analyse des erreurs dans l’enseignement/apprentissage du Français Langue Étrangère au Ghana. Il a pour objectif principal d’analyser les erreurs commises en production écrite par les étudiants de Français Langue Étrangère (FLE) à l’Université du Ghana. Le corpus a été constitué du lexique de 100 apprenants. Les instruments de collecte des données ont été les questionnaires et les rédactions/compositions. Ces derniers ont été rédigés par les étudiants des niveaux 300 et 400. Etant donné la nature de l’étude, l’approche quantitative et l’approche qualitative ont été utilisées comme mode d’investigation. L’approche qualitative porte sur le modèle de l’analyse des erreurs proposé par Corder (1967) et l’approche quantitative met en évidence des données observables et quantifiables. Les principales erreurs rencontrées dans les productions écrites des étudiants ont été celles de la morphosyntaxe. Ces erreurs commises ont été analysés. Les recommandations de notre étude ont pour but d’améliorer la production écrite en Français Langue Étrangère.


Evaluation of some metformin hydrochloride brands available in the libyan market

Various quality control tests are employed for solid dosage forms such as uniformity, dissolution and drug contents in order to assess their pharmaceutical equivalence. The objective of the current study was to assess and contrast five distinct metformin hydrochloride brands that are offered for sale in the Libyan market. The physicochemical equivalence of the five brands of metformin hydrochloride tablets (500 mg) were determined through the evaluation of official and non-official standards according to the USP including uniformity of weight, friability, hardness, dissolution rate and drug content. All the examined brands available in the Libyan market passed the official weight variation, friability, dissolution and disintegration tests and were equivalent. The friability test was found within the specified limit. All the formulations were disintegrated within 09 - 15 min. The tested brands were non-equivalent to the innovator Glucophage® according to their dissolution evaluation. The percentage content of the active ingredient of five brands of metformin tablets showed values within the monograph specifications (95% - 105%). In conclusion, all the five brands available in the Libyan market which were evaluated in this study cannot be substituted with the innovator product in clinical practice.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Mediterranean journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

Stress among banking employee- a literature review

For banking employees around the globe, stress on the job can be a challenge; stress can be sometimes positive and sometimes negative. Positive stress leads to productivity and negative stress leads to loss for the organization. There is already a certain level of stress in Banking employees work life and then encounter even more stress arising from the work pressure that Banking employees face on the job. Many employees cannot cope with such rapid changes taking place in the jobs. Role conflict, Service for customer, contribution, rapid technological change, lack of customer response is the great transaction of stress for the banking workers. The aim of this research is to understand roots and outcomes of job stress on the employee performance in banking sector.

Dr MANJUNATHA M K Dr manjunatha m k

Propranolol effect on behaviour of mice in the presence of phenytoin using elevated plus maze

Drug-drug interaction is an important issue for the development of safe pharmaceutical drugs. Propranolol is a non-selective, competitive antagonist at beta-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol is used to control hypertension, pheochromocytoma, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Also, it is used to control symptoms of sympathetic overactivity in management of hyperthyroidism, anxiety disorders and tremor. Phenytoin is a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, it is a major anti-convulsant drug that is very effective in controlling a wide variety of seizure disorders. In this study, elevated plus maze test was applied using five groups of male Albino mice, where each group consists of six mice. The first group is control and given 01.0% tween 80 with a dose of 5.0 ml/kg, the second group received propranolol 10 mg/kg, the third group received phenytoin 20 mg/kg, the fourth group received a combination of propranolol and phenytoin and the fifth group received diazepam (1.0 mg/kg) as a standard. It was found that propranolol alone produces anti-anxiety effect which is abolished when administered with phenytoin. Thus, the combined treatment of propranolol and phenytoin showed no significant difference compared to phenytoin alone or propranolol alone. It can be concluded that propranolol has anti-anxiety like effect an phenytoin antagonizes the propranolol anxiolytic effect when administered together. Propranolol, phenytoin and the combination of both decrease the spontaneous motor activity of mice. Propranolol and phenytoin partially antagonize each other on the spontaneous motor activity.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Mediterranean journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

Cardiovascular, respiratory and all-cause (natural) health endpoint estimation using a spatial approach in malaysia

In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that approximately 4.2 million premature deaths world wide were attributable to exposure to particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5). This study assessed the environmental burden of disease attributable to PM2.5 at the national level in Malaysia. We estimated the population-weighted exposure level (PWEL) of PM10 concentrations in Malaysia for 2000, 2008, and 2013 using aerosol optical density (AOD) data from publicly available remote sensing satellite data (MODIS Terra). The PWEL was then converted to PM2.5 using Malaysia's WHO ambient air conversion factor. We used AirQ+ 2.0 software to calculate all-cause (natural), ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer (LC), and acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) excess deaths from the National Burden of Disease data for 2000, 2008 and 2013. The averagePWELs for annual PM2.5 for 2000, 2008, and 2013 were 22 μg m-3, 18 μg m-3 and 24 μg m-3, respectively. Using the WHO 2005 Air Quality Guideline cut-off point of PM2.5 of 10 μg m-3, the estimated excess deaths for 2000, 2008, and 2013 from all-cause (natural) mortality were between 5893 and 9781 (95 % CI: 3347–12,791), COPD was between 164 and 957 (95 % CI: 95–1411), lung cancer was between 109 and 307 (95 % CI: 63–437), IHD was between 3 and 163 deaths, according to age groups (95 % CI: 2–394) and stroke was between 6 and 155 deaths, ac-cording to age groups (95 % CI: 3–261). An increase in estimated health endpoints was associated with increased estimated PWEL PM2.5 for 2013 compared to 2000 and 2008. Adhering the ambient PM2.5 level to the Malaysian AirQuality Standard IT-2 would reduce the national health endpoints mortality

Mohamad iqbal mazeli

Analgesic and antiemetic activity of cleome viscosa l.

The seeds of Cleome viscosa are used in traditional systems of medicine for the treatment of many diseases in Asia. This study evaluated fixed oil from the seeds of Cleome viscosa for analgesic and antiemetic activity by using the acetic acid induced writhing test in mice (intraperitoneally) and chick emetic model (oral treatment) respectively. The results showed significant analgesic and antiemetic activities of Cleome viscosa fixed oil.

Dr. salman ahmed

Akshaya patra model: feeding knowledge hungry children

While today, he was ready to serve 1.4 million meals for schoolchildren, Mr.CC Das, Program Director, Akshaya Patra Foundation from Bangalore also faced the challenges 15-years before its establishment like any other start-up. Similar was the case of Mr.Trilok Gautam, Executive Supervisor, who was working in a remote village called Baran in Rajasthan. On his visit during the mid-day meal preparation, he was inspecting the quality of meal, where women were busy in preparing food. They were preparing bread by rolling the dough, while few were chopping vegetables with utmost hygienic care. Cleaner, safer, quality meal was to be prepared and served for 1,500 poor students. These children earlier used to go hungry from the school. On November 28th 2001, Supreme Court of India gave a verdict and directed the State Government and Union Territories to provide mid-day meal to every child in Government and Government-assisted primary schools. The Right to Food Law emerged as a fundamental right, enforced due to constitutional amendment under Article 32 of the constitution. Hence, every State Government geared up to make the mid-day meal scheme successful in their respective States. The Karnataka government also participated and named this programme as ‘Akshara Dashoha’. Government of Karnataka took the pioneering step to involve NGOs like Akshaya Patra as an important partner of the government to run this innovative mid-day meal scheme under the Public Private Partnership (PPP) Model. Presently, Indian mid-day meal scheme considered as one of the largest mid-day meal programme in the world has a target to reach out nearly 120 million children in the country.

Nitin Mali Nitin mali

Phyllosphere microflora of few medicinal, garden, terrestrial and aquatic plants in and around mysuru districts, karnataka

The plant surface especially the leaf surface i.e., phyllosphere is exposed to dust and other particulates resulting in the establishment of a typical microflora. The surfaces of aerial plant parts provide habitat for epiphytic micro-organisms, many of which also influence the growth of pathogens. Microbial life in the phyllosphere is of great commercial importance to the agricultural industry for understanding the survival of plant disease-causing bacteria and fungi is vital for developing new ways to control their spread. In the present investigation, microflora isolated from the surface of a leaf of different medicinal, garden, terrestrial and aquatic plants. In this work fungus, bacteria and actinomycetes are isolated by using leaf washing methods on suitable nutritive media. Generally, the present work carried out by observation and identification of microflora under the microscope and biochemical test methods. The present work reveals that fifteen mycoflora (fungi), fifteen bacterial strains

Veerabhadraswamy AL Veerabhadraswamy al

1. critical study of guggulu kalpana with special reference of bhaishajya ratnavali

Bhaishajya kalpana is an art and science of preparing and dispencing medicine. Guggulu is a Niryasa (oily latex) achieved from small tree called Indian bedellium. Botanical name is commiphora mukul. Guggulu is an amorphous, translucent, solid adhesive, oleo-gum resin is produced by the process of gummosis from its plant. Many other Ayurvedic classics have mentioned various formulations of Guggulu for the treatment of various ailments. Bhashajya ratnawali followed various kalpana use for formuations. Guggulu kalpana is secondary formulations of bhaishajya kalpana. . Guggulu is one among the best binding agents and its used as single or compound drug in the form of pills, Formulations which contains Guggulu as main ingredient, they can be called as Guggulu kalpana. Here in Bhaishajya Ratnawali, Guggulu is used in yoga for both purposes, as a base and as well as medicament also.In bhaishajya Ratnavali Guggulu when modified into different formulations. It can also be used in many diseases along with different combinations of drugs with their anupana, Guggulu kalpana beneficial in treating many diseases. The Guggulu Kalpana is indicated in almost all the strotovikaras and also a number of research works have been proved the wide range of action of Guggulu .

Suri abhiram

A linear programming integer model for cellular manufacturing layout design with machine flexibility and dynamic criteria

The Cellular Manufacturing is adopted in batch type manufacturing industries nowadays for their production with increased productivity, less cost and time with effective control. The proposed optimization model is used to determine the cost of machine cells, i.e., machine duplication, part subcontract, inter intra cellular movements cost and cost of production associated with machine cell, such as machine reconfiguration and part inventory considering machine flexibility for various time periods. Initially, a mathematical model is proposed to calculate machine cell cost with and without considering machine flexibility, and then another lpp integer model is proposed to calculate the machine cell production and associated cost for the changes in the time period, part type, and volume considering machine flexibility. The manufacturing data in the incidence matrix and machine cell, and part family data in the block diagonal form are given as input to the optimization programming language Cplex and the output is given for the two mathematical models. The data relating to machine duplication, part subcontract, inter intracellular movement; machine reconfiguration, and part inventory are given. Two-dimensional shop floor layouts are presented in rectilinear coordinates for all the problems for easy analysis of material movement length and shop floor area

S RAMESH S ramesh

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