Pharmacology And Toxicology articles list

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

Study of temperature variation in human peripheral region during wound healing process due to plastic surgery

In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.

Manisha Jain

Metapuf: a challenge response pair generator

Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.

Abhishek Kumar

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

A critical review on mode of action of ayurvedic formulations on jwara

Rasa aushadhis are known for their uniqueness in curing the diseases with a very low dosage. These formulations are divided into two types based on their mode of preparation i.e., Single drug and Compound drug formulations. Based on their origin, the drugs are divided into three types, Herbal, Mineral and Animal. Any of these two or three together is combined to make a compound formulation. Apart from these, the other major factor which is needed for a formulation is the Rasa Panchaka of a Drug. Many of the formulations are being prepared based on their availability, keeping their Rasa Panchaka and Samprapti vighatana in mind. These formulations are designed in such a way that two or more drugs will be having one common quality, or Opposite Qualities or an Antidote of a particular Vishadravya, which can help in curing the disease. So an attempt is made to Review Tribhuvanakeerti Rasa with its Probable mode of action.

Suri abhiram

Toxicity assessment of mucuna pruriens linn seeds

Plants have been used as medicine for the treatment of diseases for thousands of years. These herbal remedies, although natural, can cause some serious damaging effects on the vital organs of the body due to inadequacy in standardization and safety regulations. Mucuna pruriens Linn. belongs to the family Fabaceae and is used traditionally in various ailments. The present study reports the acute systematic toxicity and topical toxicity of methanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens (seeds) on albino mice and rabbits respectively. The test solution was injected intravenously into the tail as 1ml/20gm of the mice body weight. The observation was made immediately and after 1/2, 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72hours of drug administration. Mice showed normal activity till 72hours. The intracutaneous test is designed to evaluate local responses to the extracts of materials under test following intracutaneous injection into rabbits. The toxicological investigations of Mucuna pruriens with particular reference to intracutaneous toxicity in experimental animals displayed that it showed slight edema.

Dr. Salman Ahmed

Antiemetic activity of some aromatic plants

The current study was conducted to explore the antiemetic activity of ten aromatic medicinal plants viz., Carissa carandus L. (fruits), Chichorium intybus L (flowers), Cinnamum tamala L (leaves), Curcuma caesia Roxb (rhizomes), Lallemantia royleana Benth (leaves), Matricaria chamomila L (flowers), Piper longum L (fruits), Piper methysticum G. Forst (fruits), Piper nigrum Linn. (fruits) and Syzygium aromaticum (Linn.) Merr. & Perry (flowering buds) was studied using a chick emetic model. The ethanol extracts of these plants were administered at 150 mg/kg body weight orally. Domperidone was given at 100 mg/kg as a reference drug. All the extracts decrease in retches induced by copper sulphate pentahydrate given orally at 50 mg/kg body weight and showed comparable antiemetic activity with domperidone. Compound targeted antiemetic activity is further suggested. Aromatic plants have tendency to relief from nausea. Alpinea offinarum,Zingiber officinale, Mentha piperita, Menthaspicata and Lavandula angustifola,are aromatic plants reported to possess antiemetic activity. So, presentinvestigation was done to evaluate more aromatic plantsregarding their antiemetic activity. Results of the antiemeticactivity of the ethanol extracts of Carissa carandus,Chichorium intybus, Cinnamum tamala, Curcuma caesia,Lallemantia royleana, Matricaria chamomila, Piper longum, Piper methysticum, Piper nigrum and Syzygium aromaticum are shown in the Table. All the extracts showed antiemeticactivity comparable with domperidone. The % inhibition was recorded as Carissa carandus (68.29), Chichorium intybus (73.86), Curcuma caesia (89.97), Cinnamum tamala (70.64), Lallemantia royleana (83.61), Matricaria chamomila (59.92), Piper longum (81.65), Piper methysticum (80.03), Piper nigrum (89.48) and Syzygium aromaticum (87.81). The highest % inhibition was shown by Curcuma caesia (89.97) and the lowest by Matricaria chamomila (59.92), whereas domperidone showed 80.18 % inhibition of emesis.

Dr. Salman Ahmed

Acute systemic toxicity of four mimosaceous plants leaves in mice

Nature provides drugs in the form of medicinal plants to cure all ailments of mankind with fewer side effects. These medicinal plants can cause some serious damaging effects on the vital organs of the body too; there is a need of toxicity studies to provide their safe use both in human and animals. The present study reports the acute systemic toxicity of methanolic extracts of leaves of Adenanthera pavonina L., Peltophorum roxburghii Deneger., Prosopis cineraria Druce and Prosopis juliflora DC., (Mimosaceae) in swiss albino mice to explore their suitable doses for pharmacological screening. Observations were made immediately and after 1/2, 1, 4, 24 and 48hours of intraperitoneal drug administration. Adenanthera pavonina extract at the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight is considered to be safe. Whereas remaining extracts of investigated plants are relatively safe at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight.

Dr. Salman Ahmed

Antiemetic activity of leaves extracts of five leguminous plants

The current study is carried out to evaluate the antiemetic activity of methanol extracts of five leguminous plants leaves viz., Cassia siamea Lamk., Cyamopsis tetragonoloba Taubert., Delonix regia Rafin., Samanea saman Merr. and Vigna trilobata Verdc. at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight orally, using a chick emesis model. Emesis was induced in male chicks by the oral administration of copper sulphate (50 mg/Kg body weight). The antiemetic activity was determined by calculating the mean decrease in the number of retching as compare with the control. All the extracts showed antiemetic activity when compared with standard drug chlorpromazine (150 mg/kg body weight orally). Among all extracts, Delonix regia showed the highest (96.74%) and Cassia siamea lowest (18%) antiemetic activity.

Dr. Salman Ahmed

Phytochemical constituent, cytotoxic activity and outcome on wheat growth parameters possessed by extracts of seaweed collected from libyan coast

Algae are used by human beings for food from ancient times, as they contain a wide range of elements. Using inexpensive, in-house bioassays for screening and monitoring of extracts where the aim of these bioassays is to provide a front-line screen that can be followed up by more specific and expensive bioassays. The phytochemical screening, assessment of toxicity and effects on growth parameters of Traticum sativum of ethanol and dichloromethane extracts of five macro-algal species (two green, two brown and one red) collected from Libyan coast were studied. The Brine shrimp lethality assay was conducted to determine the toxic effects of seaweed extracts on Artemia Salina nauplii larvae and this was to provide a front-line screen that can be backed up by specific and expensive bioassays once the active compounds have been isolated. The effect of seaweeds liquid fertilizer on growth parameters of Traticum sativum were examined using in vitro seed germination in petri dishes bioassay. Seed germination percentage, fresh and dry weight, shoots length and roots length were the parameters recorded in young seedlings post germination. Ethanolic and dichloromethane extracts of the five algae samples represented the presence of several chemical constituents. All extracts exhibited LC50 > 1000 μg per ml. In this study, all algal extracts are non-toxic according to Brine shrimp lethality assay so they may be considered as edible seaweeds. Different effects on growth parameters of Traticum sativum suggested the presence of micro-elements, macro-elements and different concentrations of plant growth hormones.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Behavioural effects of vitamin c with haloperidol in mice

Vitamin C causes a significant change in pharmacological effects of some drugs which may lead to unpredictable responses. Vitamin C-haloperidol interaction has not been confirmed in vivo. This study was aimed to investigate the influence of vitamin C on some pharmacological effects of haloperidol (extrapyramidal side effects caused by the antipsychotic haloperidol). Albino male mice (n = 24, body weight of 20 - 40 gm) were divided into four groups and each of consists of six mice. Group I (control): given 1% Tween 80 solution, group II: given vitamin C in a dose of 100 mg/kg, group III: given haloperidol (2 mg/kg), while group IV: given a combination of vitamin C and haloperidol. All the treatments were given by intraperitoneal route of administration. Three sub-acute doses of different treatments were given at 24:0, 5:0, 1:0 hour before scoring. Parameters scored were catalepsy, ptosis, rigidity and akinesia. The experiment was repeated using vitamin C in a dose of 500 mg/kg. Both doses of 100 and 500 mg/kg of vitamin C significantly antagonized the effect of haloperidol by decreasing all the tested parameters. The results indicate that vitamin C decreases extrapyramidal side effects caused by the antipsychotic haloperidol and show that it successfully decreases catalepsy, ptosis, rigidity and akinesia in mice.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

The frequencies of allele distribution of cyp2c9 and cyp2c19 gene polymorphisms in healthy papuan population, indonesia

This study's objective was to determine the distribution of allele frequencies of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms among the Papuan population, known as the second-largest ethnic group in Indonesia. According to recent research, there is a decrease in CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 produced by humans globally, including in Indonesia. These gene polymorphisms aid in the transmission of various endogenous and exogenous drugs in the human body. Material and Methods: A sum of 99 subjects, comprising 73 male and 26 female subjects aged 20-30 years, were used for this research. PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis using AvaII, NsiI, and SfaNI enzymes tested for the genotypes CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 administered. The distribution of genotypes was calculated in the population (P<0.05) using the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The Faculty of Medicine Gadjah Mada University's Medical and Health Research Ethics Committee (MHREC) accepted this research with written consent. The results revealed that in Papua subjects, CYP2C9*2 (rs1799853) and CYP2C19*17 (rs12248560) alleles were absent while in 17 percent of the population CYP2C9*3 (rs1057910) allele frequency was. In conclusion, CYP2C9*3 has the highest polymorphism rate in Indonesia, with the absence of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C19*17. Therefore, genetic drift can occur within this ethnic group.

Syahrul Tuba

Phytochemical evaluation and in-vitro thrombolytic activity ofsalvia hispanica

The present study was designed to investigate the in-vitro thrombolytic activity of various extracts of seeds of Salvia hispanica by Clot lysis method. In this study, Streptokinase was used as a positive control and the human blood was taken as test sample. The mean % of clot lysis for streptokinase was found to be 66.8%. Similarly the methanolic, ethanolic, aqueous and acetonic extracts of salvia hispanica exerted 48.5%, 35.8%, 33.3%, 27.7% lysis of the blood clot in thrombolytic activity test respectively. From our findings it was observed that all the extracts of Salvia hispanica revealed remarkable thrombolytic activity

Zeenath Banu

Phytochemical evaluation & pharmacological screening of didymocarpus pedicellata and ashwagandha for antiurolithiatic activity

The kidney stones are one of the most widely spreading disorders in the world. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of ethanolic extract of Didymocarpuspedicellata and Ashwagandha for its antiurolithiatic activity in rats. Urolithiasis was induced in adult male albino wistar rats by 0.75% of ethylene glycol for 28 days. The effect of the oral administration of the ethanolicextracts has been studied and is compared with the effect of oral administration of Cystone(Himalaya) as a standard on Wistar rat. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calciumand phosphate. Supplementation with ethanolic extract of the plants significantly reduced the elevated urinary oxalate, showing a regulatory action on endogenous oxalate synthesis. Both the plant extract showed significant antiurolithiatic activity

Zeenath Banu

Phytochemical evaluation and pharmacological screening of didymocarpus pedicellata and ashwagandha for antiurolithiatic activity

The kidney stones are one of the most widely spreading disorders in the world. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of ethanolic extract of Didymocarpuspedicellata and Ashwagandha for its antiurolithiatic activity in rats. Urolithiasis was induced in adult male albino wistar rats by 0.75% of ethylene glycol for 28 days. The effect of the oral administration of the ethanolicextracts has been studied and is compared with the effect of oral administration of Cystone(Himalaya) as a standard on Wistar rat. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calciumand phosphate. Supplementation with ethanolic extract of the plants significantly reduced the elevated urinary oxalate, showing a regulatory action on endogenous oxalate synthesis. Both the plant extract showed significant antiurolithiatic activity

Zeenath Banu