India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.
In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.
Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.
One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.
Ketorolac tromethamine, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was formulated into mucoadhesive films to overcome the limitations in the currently available dosage and routes of administration which in sequence will increase patients’ compliance. Films were cast from organic and aqueous solvents using various bioadhesive polymers namely: HPMC E-15, Eudragit RLPO, Eudragit RSPO, Carbopol 934P. The prepared films were subjected to investigation for their physical and mechanical properties, swelling behaviors, in vitro bioadhesion, drug permeation via bovine buccal mucosa, and in vitro drug release. These properties were found to vary significantly depending on the preparation methods, the type of the polymers, and the ratio of addition of both plasticizers (i.e. polyethylene glycol and film forming agent. Formulation F4 is selected for best formulation because it shows the 98.85% drug release at time 6 hr. In addition, this film was subjected to in vitro and in vivo release. The obtained results indicate that the concentration of ketorolac in the oral cavity was maintained above 4.0 µg/ml for a period of at least 6 h. This film shows promising results for using the ketorolac mucoadhesive route of administration topically and systemically, and thus it will be subjected to clinical evaluation in future work.
Ayurvedic formulations are of three types, Herbal, Mineral and Herbo-Mineral. Of which, Herbomineral is prepared either by Khalweeya or by Bhasmeekarana procedures. The quality of Bhasma depends on the number of putas given. Rasa Bhasma is one such kind of a Herbo-mineral preparation which can be obtained by Puta procedure as described in texts of Rasa Shastra. Though there are different procedures mentioned for preparation of Rasa Bhasma, maarana done with Gorvara puta seems to be an apt way to obtain the final product. Puta is the generalised way of heat application used during the pharmaceutical procedures of Rasa dravyas, where the purified organic Metal/Mineral is converted completely into powder form which can be absorbed easily into the body without causing any ill effects. Different types of Puta have been explained for bhasmeekarana of different metals and minerals. Among them, certain putas have been mentioned where Mandaagni plays a crucial role in Maarana (Incineration). These Mandaagniputas are in use of preparing certain Bhasmas like ShilajitBhasma, HaratalaBhasma, GouripashanaBhasma, and PaaradaBhasma. As these drugs are having relatively low boiling and melting points when compared to other dravyas, and are easy to evaporate when exposed to high temperatures, they need a standardized quantum of heat by which they can be transformed into Bhasma. Gorvara puta is one such kind where agni plays a major role in the preparation of Bhasma. So, the present study A Comprehensive Study of Gorvara Puta in Preparation of Rasa Bhasmahas has been under taken.
Rasa aushadhis are known for their uniqueness in curing the diseases with a very low dosage. These formulations are divided into two types based on their mode of preparation i.e., Single drug and Compound drug formulations. Based on their origin, the drugs are divided into three types, Herbal, Mineral and Animal. Any of these two or three together is combined to make a compound formulation. Apart from these, the other major factor which is needed for a formulation is the Rasa Panchaka of a Drug. Many of the formulations are being prepared based on their availability, keeping their Rasa Panchaka and Samprapti vighatana in mind. These formulations are designed in such a way that two or more drugs will be having one common quality, or Opposite Qualities or an Antidote of a particular Vishadravya, which can help in curing the disease. So an attempt is made to Review Tribhuvanakeerti Rasa with its Probable mode of action.
Crude methanol extracts of the leaves of Adenanthera pavonina L., Peltoforum roxburghii L, Prosopis cineraria L., and Prosopis juliflora DC., were evaluated for anti-emetic activity. Emesis was induced by the oral administration of copper sulphate 50mg/kg body weight to male chicks of four days age. The anti-emetic activity was determined by calculating the mean decrease in number of retching in contrast with those of control. All extracts (150 mg / kg body weight orally) showed anti-emetic activity when compared with standard drug Chlorpromazine at the same dose. Among all the extracts, Prosopis juliflora showed the highest (73.64%) and Adenanthera pavonina showed the lowest (50.17%) anti-emetic activity
Nature provides drugs in the form of medicinal plants to cure all ailments of mankind with fewer side effects. These medicinal plants can cause some serious damaging effects on the vital organs of the body too; there is a need of toxicity studies to provide their safe use both in human and animals. The present study reports the acute systemic toxicity of methanolic extracts of leaves of Adenanthera pavonina L., Peltophorum roxburghii Deneger., Prosopis cineraria Druce and Prosopis juliflora DC., (Mimosaceae) in swiss albino mice to explore their suitable doses for pharmacological screening. Observations were made immediately and after 1/2, 1, 4, 24 and 48hours of intraperitoneal drug administration. Adenanthera pavonina extract at the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight is considered to be safe. Whereas remaining extracts of investigated plants are relatively safe at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight.
2-Azetidinone shows biological activities like anti-bacterial, anti-microbial activity, anti-tubercular activity, and anti-cancer activity. 2-azetdinone derivatives were synthesized by simple procedures. The first step is synthesis of benzohydrazide through nucleophilic substitution reaction between methyl benzoate and hydrazine hydrate. The above formed compound is then treated with substituted aromatic aldehydes in the presence of catalytic amount of concentrated hydrochloric acid with stirring for one hour to give benzohydrazone which results in the formation of Schiff bases.Schiff bases undergone cyclisation in the presence of chloroacetylchloride and diethylenediamine by using ethanol as a solvent upon stirring for 4 hour’s yielded 2-azetidinone derivatives. The in-silico anti-leukemic activity was determined by using the computational tools i.e. “PASS Online”, “AutoDock4.2” and “ADMET” properties by online software’s. Among these six derivatives compounds (AZT-6) was shown more activity when compared with the other five compounds.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of pharmacovigilance by healthcare professionals in Benghazi. A structured questionnaire adapted from a previous validated study. One hundred questionnaires were distributed in August 2019 and filled by healthcare providers working at different hospitals in Benghazi, Libya. Participants were 57% physicians and 43% pharmacists (age average 31-40 years). 47% had correctly defined Pharmacovigilance while 19% know what is meant by adverse drug reactions. Moreover, 61% of the participants did not share information about raising adverse drug reactions in some patients with other healthcare professionals. 35% of them did not know about the adverse drug reactions reporting system in Libya. Whereas, 42% have strongly agreed that reporting adverse drug reactions is essential. 41% and 45% of participants believed that reporting adverse drug reactions is not time-consuming and increases patient safety, respectively. In conclusion, educational programs and training courses about the importance of Pharmacovigilance for physicians and pharmacists in Benghazi are needed.
Over the last few years, Libyan scientists and researchers have investigated most of the native wild plants from various regions of Libya. Since tens of years, research groups from Libyan universities, especially at Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology Center, have assessed the native wild plants for their detailed biochemical and pharmacological active composition in order to identify their biologically active compounds with health and therapeutic benefits and economical values. Recent scientific reports stated that several wild Libyan plants carry various bioactive compounds which have a substantial role in treating certain human diseases such as diabetes mellitus, inflammations, microbial infections, cancer, etc
In addition to the ordinary pharmacists’ role in dispensing and ensuring safety and efficacy of drugs, pharmacy profession is also concerning with clinical services towards community through multidisciplinary approach. In this regard, the clinical pharmacy is an area of pharmacy that concerned with the science and practice of rational drug use in which clinical pharmacist provides patient care that optimizes medication therapy and promotes health, wellness and prevention of diseases. During the recent crises of COVID-19 pandemic, the health systems appeared to be weak worldwide. Health care professionals seem to have nothing to present to their COVID-19 infected patients as no effective medications are approved by the World Health Organization (WHO) yet. Moreover, physicians are worried about the secondary infection for COVID-19 patients, therefore, treatment protocols were designed and mostly applied for critical COVID-19 patients who have been hospitalized in Libya. WHO does not recommend antibiotic therapy or prophylaxis for patients with mild COVID-19 unless symptoms of a bacterial infection exist. This monograph will highlight the widespread use of antibiotics and anticoagulants for COVID-19 patients at Maetiga Hopital in Tripoli, Libya
Nowadays, the pharmacy profession is moving toward a multidisciplinary approach. Besides the pharmacists’ role beyond dispensing and checking the safety, quality and efficacy of the delivered medications, pharmacists are currently using their clinical knowledge to serve the community through different disciplines including drug counseling, vaccination, screening, and drug therapy management
Living with epilepsy, its unpredictable seizures, and its comorbid conditions present many challenges over the time. Continued educational efforts can play a key role in helping people learn to live with epilepsy and understand epileptic medications over the life span. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of pharmacist-initiated education on patients with epilepsy. Prospective and observational pilot study to evaluate the impact of educational interventions during February and March, 2019 was conducted. A total of seven patients with epilepsy was included in this study. They received ordinary consultation care in National Centre of Epilepsy at Ali Omar Askar Hospital in Tripoli, Libya. Knowledge assessment questionnaire was assessed initially and patients were subjected to pharmacist-initiated education and they have given follow up reporting card. A follow up for one month has continuously been done and final evaluation included: knowledge assessment questionnaire, adverse drug reactions and epileptic attacks reporting. All the patients completed the pre and post education questionnaire. There was no significant difference between the patients’ knowledge before and after interventional questionnaire except for only two patients which is statistically significant (P=0.03) and (P=0.02) whose knowledge was significantly enhanced by post education. Thus, there are a lot of opportunities and challenges for pharmacists to play a role in epileptic care and education as patients with epilepsy are not knowledgeable about their illness regardless of age, educational background or duration of epilepsy. This role must be highly enforced and implemented in patients with epilepsy.
This comparative study was conducted between local (Libyan) and imported (Chinese) garlic to evaluate their antibacterial activity against some isolated gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The study was carried out by using the agar well diffusion method at different aqueous extract concentrations (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). The results showed that distinct antibacterial effects on both types of garlic with some differences between local and imported garlic. However, the zone of inhibition was more against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli, respectively. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity increased with the increase of concentration. So, this study recommends that garlic should be used against bacterial infection and more studies may be done against other bacterial species, especially multidrug-resistance strains.
The rate of aging is rapidly increasing and the term of geriatric refers to offer a medical care to elderly people. Drug consumption study on geriatric population is a vital issue since this group is totally neglected in Libya. The aim of this study was to assess drug utilization pattern among elderly patients in terms of world health organization core prescribing indicators and to evaluate the treatment cost. A total of 106 prescriptions were randomly collected from different community pharmacies located in Tripoli during the summer 2019, and were evaluated (total number of prescribed drugs is 359) for their clinical efficacy and safety. The findings revealed that 60 drugs acting on GIT (16.7%), 50 antimicrobial drugs (13.9%), 31 antihypertensive drugs (8.6%) and 30 drugs for respiratory diseases (8.4%) were prescribed to patients who are 65 years old or more. With regard to disease pattern in the elderly Libyan patients, 27 drugs were prescribed for diabetes mellitus (7.5%), 24 drugs for cardiovascular drugs (6.7%) and 14 drugs for anti-hyperlipidemia (3.9%). According to the WHO core drug use indicator pattern, the average number of drugs prescribed per encounter was 3.3. Prescription by generic name was low (41.5%). Antibiotics were 36.8% while injections were 26.6%. Thus, this study suggest that geriatric medicine and rational drug use should strongly be implanted in medical schools and teaching hospitals. Besides, a drug pattern use of the Libyan community is urgently required to avoid drug prescribing errors.
Pharmacists stand alongside with other professionals in representing essential healthcare during health emergencies such as COVID-19 pandemic. The present study seeks to explore the behavior and attitude of community pharmacists across various pharmacies throughout this pandemic towards the safety of workplace environment for staff and patients. An online questionnaire has been prepared and distributed to 145 community pharmacies during March to May, 2020. The collected results and data showed that community pharmacists in Libya have a good knowledge and adherence to preventive and protective measures published by FIP, WHO and other health-related organizations to protect themselves and society from infection. The pharmacist role in educating and information provision of the current disease and its management is still going on regardless the pandemic. A negative evaluation to the government support during the pandemic is clear from participant's replies. In Conclusion, this study looks forward to disclosing the current activities undertaken across various community pharmacy settings concerning safety of the workplace environment for both staff and patients. A clear and relatively realistic picture of the extent of commitment and knowledge of pharmacists of the necessary aspects needed to deal with this pandemic within community pharmacies is suggested. The extent of community pharmacist's knowledge, readiness and speed of their response to such a pandemic have been identified.