Pharmacology articles list

A review on the potential of remdesivir against sars cov2

Covid 19, the pandemic originated in the Chinese city of Wuhan, had the entire world conquered. The structure and transmission of the causative organism, Coronavirus is well studied. Remdesivir, the product of Gilead pharmaceuticals, was effective against many viral infections, including Ebola and SARS. It comes under the category of nucleoside prodrug and has given promising results in the early trials against SARS COV 19. In depth, research is taking place at a rapid pace, so that Remdesivir will be available to the therapeutic community as an effective remedy for the pandemic caused by SARS COV2. If this meets success, the darkest era in the modern history of mankind may become a memory in the near future.

Vinod B

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

Study of temperature variation in human peripheral region during wound healing process due to plastic surgery

In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.

Manisha Jain

Metapuf: a challenge response pair generator

Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.

Abhishek Kumar

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

A critical review on mode of action of ayurvedic formulations on jwara

Rasa aushadhis are known for their uniqueness in curing the diseases with a very low dosage. These formulations are divided into two types based on their mode of preparation i.e., Single drug and Compound drug formulations. Based on their origin, the drugs are divided into three types, Herbal, Mineral and Animal. Any of these two or three together is combined to make a compound formulation. Apart from these, the other major factor which is needed for a formulation is the Rasa Panchaka of a Drug. Many of the formulations are being prepared based on their availability, keeping their Rasa Panchaka and Samprapti vighatana in mind. These formulations are designed in such a way that two or more drugs will be having one common quality, or Opposite Qualities or an Antidote of a particular Vishadravya, which can help in curing the disease. So an attempt is made to Review Tribhuvanakeerti Rasa with its Probable mode of action.

Suri abhiram

Analgesic and antiemetic activity of cleome viscosa l.

The seeds of Cleome viscosa are used in traditional systems of medicine for the treatment of many diseases in Asia. This study evaluated fixed oil from the seeds of Cleome viscosa for analgesic and antiemetic activity by using the acetic acid induced writhing test in mice (intraperitoneally) and chick emetic model (oral treatment) respectively. The results showed significant analgesic and antiemetic activities of Cleome viscosa fixed oil.

Dr. Salman Ahmed

Antiemetic activity of some aromatic plants

The current study was conducted to explore the antiemetic activity of ten aromatic medicinal plants viz., Carissa carandus L. (fruits), Chichorium intybus L (flowers), Cinnamum tamala L (leaves), Curcuma caesia Roxb (rhizomes), Lallemantia royleana Benth (leaves), Matricaria chamomila L (flowers), Piper longum L (fruits), Piper methysticum G. Forst (fruits), Piper nigrum Linn. (fruits) and Syzygium aromaticum (Linn.) Merr. & Perry (flowering buds) was studied using a chick emetic model. The ethanol extracts of these plants were administered at 150 mg/kg body weight orally. Domperidone was given at 100 mg/kg as a reference drug. All the extracts decrease in retches induced by copper sulphate pentahydrate given orally at 50 mg/kg body weight and showed comparable antiemetic activity with domperidone. Compound targeted antiemetic activity is further suggested. Aromatic plants have tendency to relief from nausea. Alpinea offinarum,Zingiber officinale, Mentha piperita, Menthaspicata and Lavandula angustifola,are aromatic plants reported to possess antiemetic activity. So, presentinvestigation was done to evaluate more aromatic plantsregarding their antiemetic activity. Results of the antiemeticactivity of the ethanol extracts of Carissa carandus,Chichorium intybus, Cinnamum tamala, Curcuma caesia,Lallemantia royleana, Matricaria chamomila, Piper longum, Piper methysticum, Piper nigrum and Syzygium aromaticum are shown in the Table. All the extracts showed antiemeticactivity comparable with domperidone. The % inhibition was recorded as Carissa carandus (68.29), Chichorium intybus (73.86), Curcuma caesia (89.97), Cinnamum tamala (70.64), Lallemantia royleana (83.61), Matricaria chamomila (59.92), Piper longum (81.65), Piper methysticum (80.03), Piper nigrum (89.48) and Syzygium aromaticum (87.81). The highest % inhibition was shown by Curcuma caesia (89.97) and the lowest by Matricaria chamomila (59.92), whereas domperidone showed 80.18 % inhibition of emesis.

Dr. Salman Ahmed

Anti-emetic activity of some leguminous plants

Crude methanol extracts of the leaves of Adenanthera pavonina L., Peltoforum roxburghii L, Prosopis cineraria L., and Prosopis juliflora DC., were evaluated for anti-emetic activity. Emesis was induced by the oral administration of copper sulphate 50mg/kg body weight to male chicks of four days age. The anti-emetic activity was determined by calculating the mean decrease in number of retching in contrast with those of control. All extracts (150 mg / kg body weight orally) showed anti-emetic activity when compared with standard drug Chlorpromazine at the same dose. Among all the extracts, Prosopis juliflora showed the highest (73.64%) and Adenanthera pavonina showed the lowest (50.17%) anti-emetic activity

Dr. Salman Ahmed

Acute systemic toxicity of four mimosaceous plants leaves in mice

Nature provides drugs in the form of medicinal plants to cure all ailments of mankind with fewer side effects. These medicinal plants can cause some serious damaging effects on the vital organs of the body too; there is a need of toxicity studies to provide their safe use both in human and animals. The present study reports the acute systemic toxicity of methanolic extracts of leaves of Adenanthera pavonina L., Peltophorum roxburghii Deneger., Prosopis cineraria Druce and Prosopis juliflora DC., (Mimosaceae) in swiss albino mice to explore their suitable doses for pharmacological screening. Observations were made immediately and after 1/2, 1, 4, 24 and 48hours of intraperitoneal drug administration. Adenanthera pavonina extract at the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight is considered to be safe. Whereas remaining extracts of investigated plants are relatively safe at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight.

Dr. Salman Ahmed

Antiemetic activity of leaves extracts of five leguminous plants

The current study is carried out to evaluate the antiemetic activity of methanol extracts of five leguminous plants leaves viz., Cassia siamea Lamk., Cyamopsis tetragonoloba Taubert., Delonix regia Rafin., Samanea saman Merr. and Vigna trilobata Verdc. at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight orally, using a chick emesis model. Emesis was induced in male chicks by the oral administration of copper sulphate (50 mg/Kg body weight). The antiemetic activity was determined by calculating the mean decrease in the number of retching as compare with the control. All the extracts showed antiemetic activity when compared with standard drug chlorpromazine (150 mg/kg body weight orally). Among all extracts, Delonix regia showed the highest (96.74%) and Cassia siamea lowest (18%) antiemetic activity.

Dr. Salman Ahmed

Prescribing patterns in systemic hypertension and pharmaco-economics (cost effectiveness and cost minimisation analyses) of the commonly prescribed antihypertensives in a district hospital in enugu state, southeast nigeria

Background: Prescribing patterns in systemic hypertension vary from place to place. Studies have shown that cost could be one of the factors responsible for non-adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. Nigerian pharmacoeconomics studies have not provided a general guide on cost-effective prescribing for hypertensive patients in the country. The aim of the study was to examine the prescribing patterns, do cost effectiveness and cost minimisation analyses of the commonly prescribed antihypertensives, and determine if cost is a major reason many of the hypertensive patients of the District Hospital are usually lost to follow up. Methods: 5267 adult (≥18 years) non-antenatal patients’ cards of 2016 were reviewed for hypertension. Examination of the prescriptions, cost-effectiveness and cost-minimisation analyses of the commonly prescribed antihypertensives were done. Results: 12.6% of the patients were hypertensive. 73% of these hypertensive patients were treated pharmacologically. 40.8% adhered to treatment. 73% of the adherent ones responded to treatment. Amlodipine was the most expensive prescribed antihypertensive (N22). Amiloride-hydrochlorothiazide with the largest cost effectiveness ratio (CER) (9) was the most cost effective of all the combinations. Lisinopril- hydrochlorothiazide (N17) was preferable to the triple combination of lisinopril-amlodipine-hydrochlorothiazide (N39), and amlodipine-hydrochlorothiazide (N32) in cost minimisation. Conclusions: Cost of drugs probably had played a significant role in non-adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients in the District Hospital in 2016, since moduretic with the largest CER (9) and nifedipine with the greatest BP reduction when combined with hydrochlorothiazide (56/22 mm Hg) were rarely prescribed.

Emmanuel Umegbolu

Phytochemical evaluation and pharmacological screening of antiparkinson’s activity of allium sativum in swiss/albino mice

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the Antiparkinson activity of Allium sativum in Haloperidol induced Parkinson‟s disease in mice. Method: Parkinson‟s disease was induced by administering haloperidol (2.0 mg/kg i.p.) Daily for a week. The mice were divided into 5 group (n=6). Group II received haloperidol (2mg/kg body weight).Group III received combination of levodopa and carbidopa (100mg+ 10mg/kg by i.p along with haloperidol) and Group IV and V received Allium sativum extract (200 and 400mg/kg by p.o), respectively for 7 days along with haloperidol. To evaluate the antiparkinson effect of Allium sativum, catalepsy bar test, rotarod test, hang test and horizontal bar test were used. One way ANOVA was used to test statistical significance followed by Bonferroni multiple comparison tests .Results: Allium sativum extract (200 and 400mg/kg by p.o) was found to decrease the duration of catalepsy significantly (P<0.001) in catalepsy bar test as compared to haloperidol group, and significantly increases (P<0.001) fall off time in, rotarod test, hang test and horizontal bar test respectively as compared to haloperidol group. Conclusion: The result of the present study conclusively shows the Antiparkinson‟s activity of Allium sativum in haloperidol induced Parkinson‟s disease in mice.

Zeenath Banu

A review on parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease, first described by James Parkinson in 1817, is a neurodegenerative ailment resulting from the damage of nerve cells in the brain. It is a chronic, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder with an estimated prevalence of 31 to 328 per 100,000 people worldwide. It is estimated that more than 1 percent of the population over age 65 are afflicted with Parkinson’s disease; incidence and prevalence increase with age. There are numerous unanswered questions regarding the diagnosis and management of Parkinson’s disease. Worsening mobility, causing problems with activities of daily living, pain and communication problems due to rigidity of facial muscles, are the main reasons of their decreasing quality of life. This study is focused on the role of psychological variables, which could be associated with quality of life in PD patients. After their identification a discussion about opportunities of improvement patient’s quality of life can be opened. Current drug therapies for human PD with Levodopa or various dopamine receptor agonists offer symptomatic relief and appear to have little effect on the neurodegenerative process. More than 50% of patients with PD treated over 5 years with Levodopa will develop complications such as motor fluctuations and dyskinesia’s. In this scenario, slowing the progression of PD through neuroprotective or restorative therapy is a major focus of research. From a pharmacologic standpoint, current strategies involve interrupting the cascade of biochemical events that leads to death of dopaminergic cells. The significance of many indigenous medicinal plants and their phytoconstitutents in the management of Parkinsonism with minimal side effect profile arise in this context

Zeenath Banu

Assessment of drug prescribing pattern and prescription errors in elderly patients

The rate of aging is rapidly increasing and the term of geriatric refers to offer a medical care to elderly people. Drug consumption study on geriatric population is a vital issue since this group is totally neglected in Libya. The aim of this study was to assess drug utilization pattern among elderly patients in terms of world health organization core prescribing indicators and to evaluate the treatment cost. A total of 106 prescriptions were randomly collected from different community pharmacies located in Tripoli during the summer 2019, and were evaluated (total number of prescribed drugs is 359) for their clinical efficacy and safety. The findings revealed that 60 drugs acting on GIT (16.7%), 50 antimicrobial drugs (13.9%), 31 antihypertensive drugs (8.6%) and 30 drugs for respiratory diseases (8.4%) were prescribed to patients who are 65 years old or more. With regard to disease pattern in the elderly Libyan patients, 27 drugs were prescribed for diabetes mellitus (7.5%), 24 drugs for cardiovascular drugs (6.7%) and 14 drugs for anti-hyperlipidemia (3.9%). According to the WHO core drug use indicator pattern, the average number of drugs prescribed per encounter was 3.3. Prescription by generic name was low (41.5%). Antibiotics were 36.8% while injections were 26.6%. Thus, this study suggest that geriatric medicine and rational drug use should strongly be implanted in medical schools and teaching hospitals. Besides, a drug pattern use of the Libyan community is urgently required to avoid drug prescribing errors.

Fathi M. Sherif

Effect of ephedra altissima stems extract on behaviour in the mouse

Herbal products are being paid particular attention by people around the world since they are natural, effective, and without side effects. In modern medicine, some drugs prescribed to the patients are derived from medicinal plants. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the central nervous effects of methanol extract of Ephedra altissima stems, in Albino mice. Doses of 500, 1500, and 3000 mg/kg of the methanol extract were administered in sub-acute doses (three doses), intraperitoneally at 24, 5.0, and 1.0 hours before scoring. General locomotor behavior profile, antidepressant activity, and anxiolytic activity were studied. The results revealed that the methanol extract of Ephedra altissima at 500, 1500, and 3000 mg/kg produced central nervous system depression, a remarkable decrease in the immobility time (forced swimming maze test), no anxiolytic-like effect by using elevated plus-maze model of anxiety. These results suggest that methanol extract of Ephedra altissima exhibits a central depressant activity, antidepressant-like activity, and mild antipsychotic activity without anxiolytic-like effect in tested experimental animal models with the doses used. Therefore, it can be concluded that Ephedra altissima extract may have a central depression, antidepressant-like activity with no effect as anxiolytic-like mood.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Prescribing of antibiotics and anticoagulants for patients with covid-19 in libya

In addition to the ordinary pharmacists’ role in dispensing and ensuring safety and efficacy of drugs, pharmacy profession is also concerning with clinical services towards community through multidisciplinary approach. In this regard, the clinical pharmacy is an area of pharmacy that concerned with the science and practice of rational drug use in which clinical pharmacist provides patient care that optimizes medication therapy and promotes health, wellness and prevention of diseases. During the recent crises of COVID-19 pandemic, the health systems appeared to be weak worldwide. Health care professionals seem to have nothing to present to their COVID-19 infected patients as no effective medications are approved by the World Health Organization (WHO) yet. Moreover, physicians are worried about the secondary infection for COVID-19 patients, therefore, treatment protocols were designed and mostly applied for critical COVID-19 patients who have been hospitalized in Libya. WHO does not recommend antibiotic therapy or prophylaxis for patients with mild COVID-19 unless symptoms of a bacterial infection exist. This monograph will highlight the widespread use of antibiotics and anticoagulants for COVID-19 patients at Maetiga Hopital in Tripoli, Libya

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors on health related quality of life in libyan patients with hypertension

Hypertension is a public health issue that significantly increases the risk of health problems and decreases health quality of life of the patients. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are used to control hypertension by preventing production of angiotensin II in turn decrease blood pressure, thus it may enhance the quality of life. This study aims to assess the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors on the quality of life of patients with hypertensive aging 40 years or older in Benghazi city in comparison with other classes of hypertension medications. A case control observational study was conducted, adopting the structured face-to-face interviewing survey technique. Over 150 patients who visited Benghazi medical center during the study period (November, 2019 to March, 2020), to follow up their chronic disease. The investigators used a pre-validated, pre-piloted questionnaire that has been adopted from SF 36 and modified according to the updated literature review; responses to each question were coded and analyzed. The results display that antihypertensive medications were found to be significantly related to the limitation on the physical activity domain and found that medications decrease the limitation on the activity with about 20% of the patients who taking angiotensin receptor blockers (20%) and 30% of the patients taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, 40% of the patients had no limitations on bending kneeling and stooping. Moreover, on the limitations on walking more than one kilometre, the results were about 15% of the patients taking angiotensin receptor blockers and 30% of the patients taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors had a slightly or no limitation on walking more than a kilometre. Thus, the findings indicate that antihypertensive medications have a positive effect on quality of life of the patient in limitation on activity domain but no conclusive difference was found between angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers medications.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

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