The importance of employees' motivation and training on company performance in a family business

Business nowadays has no boundaries of time, place, or information, so any firm must evaluate its performance regularly to ensure long-term viability. This study aims to determine the impact of employees’ motivation and job training on company performance in a family business called PT Anugrah Mandiri. It is an automotive spare parts distribution company in Medan, Indonesia established in 2010. As a family business run by many family members, PT Anugrah Mandiri tends to undervalue the importance of providing motivation and delivering practical training to its employees. This results in most employees being overwhelmed, and the business performance is decreasing. As this study's quantitative research method shows, motivated and skilled employees are the keys to a successful firm. The instruments used to collect data are questionnaires about employees’ motivation, job training, and company performance, and then processed using SPSS. Saturation sampling is used as the sampling method by administering the questionnaires to 50 employees of PT Anugrah Mandiri. The data analysis tool in this study is a multiple linear regression by carrying out a classic assumption test continued by testing the partial hypothesis or t-test, the simultaneous hypothesis test or the F test, and the calculation of the coefficient of determination. The statistical result shows that company performance increases by 0.422 and 0.384 when employees’ motivation and job training increase by 1 unit. All hypotheses in this research are accepted, and it can be concluded that employees’ motivation and job training influence company performance.

Lila Maria Kaban Lila maria kaban

An international, interlaboratory ring trial confirms the feasibility of an extraction-less “direct” rt-qpcr method for reliable detection of sars-cov-2 rna in clinical samples

Reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is used worldwide to test and trace the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2). “Extraction-less” or “direct” real time–reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a transparent and accessible qualitative method for SARS-CoV-2 detection from nasopharyngeal or oral pharyngeal samples with the potential to generate actionable data more quickly, at a lower cost, and with fewer experimental resources than full RT-qPCR. This study engaged 10 global testing sites, including laboratories currently experiencing testing limitations due to reagent or equipment shortages, in an international interlaboratory ring trial. Participating laboratories were provided a common protocol, common reagents, aliquots of identical pooled clinical samples, and purified nucleic acids and used their existing in-house equipment. We observed 100% concordance across laboratories in the correct identification of all positive and negative samples, with highly similar cycle threshold values. The test also performed well when applied to locally collected patient nasopharyngeal samples, provided the viral transport media did not contain charcoal or guanidine, both of which appeared to potently inhibit the RT-PCR reaction. Our results suggest that direct RT-PCR assay methods can be clearly translated across sites utilizing readily available equipment and expertise and are thus a feasible option for more efficient COVID-19 coronavirus disease testing as demanded by the continuing pandemic.

Bitrus Inuwa Bitrus inuwa

Effects of yoga practices on selected physiological parameters of bharathidasan university inter-collegiate men football players

The purpose of this study was to find out the effects of yoga practices on selected physiological parameters of Bharathidasan University inter-collegiate men Football players. The study was conducted on thirty Football players from various colleges who have participated in Bharathidasan University Tiruchirappalli, Thanjavur Divisional tournaments 2019-2020. Subjects were randomly assigned equally into two groups, Group –I underwent yogic practices group (n=15) and group II (n=15) acted as control group. Resting pulse rate, Breath holding time and Cardio respiratory endurance were selected as creation variables. The training programme was restricted to 12 weeks and the number of session was 3 days per week. Resting pulse rate was assessed by Radial pulse method, Breath holding time was assessed by Manuel method and Cardio Respiratory Endurance was assessed by Cooper’s 12 minutes run/walk test. The data was collected from the experimental and Control Groups before and after the 8 weeks of training programme were statically examined with Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Resting Pulse Rate, Breath Holding Time and Cardio Respiratory Endurance showed significant difference between the groups.

Dr.i. john parthiban

Analysis of few crude compounds and separation of leaf pigments in few medicinal plant species

For utilization of a certain biomass it is necessary to know its chemical composition. The present study is qualitative crude chemical analyses of nutritional value (crude compounds) such as acidity, starch, carohydrates, iron and calcium etc. from stem extracts of Tinospora cardifolia, Centella asiatica, Clerodendrum inerme and leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum, Lawsonia inermis and Piper nigrum were conducted and also separate the pigments by TLC methods. The results revealed that Tinospora cardifolia, biomolecules like starch and carbohydrates were present and elements like iron and calcium were absent. In Centella asiatica indicated the absence of biomolecules like starch and carbohydrates and only one molecules, i.e., calcium is present and iron is absent. Similarly, in Clerodendrum inerme, biomolecules like starch were absent and carbohydrates were present. Both the elements iron and calcium were absent in Clerodendrum plant extracts. In Ocimum sanctum, starch is absent carbohydrates are present, iron and calcium are absent. In Lawsonia inermis, the results are similar to Ocimum sp. i.e., only carbohydrates are present remaining starch, iron and calcium are absent in Ocimum leaf extract. Interestingly, in Piper nigrum, all chemical compounds are totally absent. Related to pigments analysis highest distance travelled pigments are carotenoids (4.3 cm) in O. sanctum and highest numbers of pigments were founded in C. inerme with six pigments and least number of pigments was recorded in O. sanctum (four) and L. inermis (four). Meanwhile, the highest Rf value recorded in O. sanctum and P. nigrum with 0.97 (chlorophyll a). Among the seven pigments in six species carotenoids, chlorophyll a and xanthophylls are common to all species but chlorophyll b, lutein, anthocyanin and lawsonin are rare to occurs in these six species for example Lawsonin occur only in P. nigrum.

Veerabhadraswamy AL Veerabhadraswamy al

Securing video files using steganography method in android mobile

The development of smart phone technology has lead to denigrate of the phone prepared with many sophisticated features such as sensors. Camera is one of the most extensively used sensors. Although the photographs capture by camera can be shared via Multimedia Message Service (MMS) which allows broadcast of files like photographs, audio and video. A major problem of MMS is, it doesn’t provide adequate safety mechanism. Because of this, the data of the people who wants to conceal confidential information from state-controlled systems that can be easily monitored. Video Steganography is a technique to hide any type of files in any extension into a Video file. The idea proposed in this paper is to embed any kind of data in another file, which is called carrier file. The carrier file must be image video file. Steganography is the art of hiding messages inside other messages such that the very existence of the message is unknown to third party. In this paper, a steganography-based android mobile application that can insert the confidential information into an image, then into a video that can be send it to receiver. Finally we can extract the confidential information from the image in the receiver side.

Dr H Shaheen Dr h shaheen

Off-label use of misoprostol in obstetric-gynecology patients at a private hospital in banyumas

Using off-label drugs in obstetric-gynecology patients requires caution because of the high risk of pregnancy. Although there is still debate, data profiling its use in clinical practice is lacking. This study aims to observe the use of off-label drugs in obstetrics and gynecology patients in private hospitals, especially the pill Misoprostol. This study used a descriptive observational approach to hospital medical record data. Retrieval of research data retrospectively at Bunda General Hospital (X Hospital) for July 2017 – December 2017 and Sinar Kasih Hospital (Y Hospital) for January 2018 – December 2018. The number of samples was determined using the Slovin formula, with a systematic random sampling technique at X Hospital and total sampling at Y Hospital. The samples were 220 RM at X 130 Hospital and Y 90 Hospital. The research was conducted in the period January 2019 - March 2019. The results were analyzed univariately using several related references. The results showed 26.92% of misoprostol off-label use in X Hospital and 4% in Y Hospital. The off-label drug found was Misoprostol which belongs to the category of off-label indications (Missed Abortion, Incomplete Abortion, Blighted Ovum, and Induction of labor in cases of Serotinus, KPD, and IUFD), off-label doses (50 µg, 100 µg, and 400 µg), and off-label routes of administration (sublingual and vaginal). ​

Much Ilham Novalisa Aji Wibowo Much ilham novalisa aji wibowo

Hybrid cryptography algorithms for enhanced adaptive acknowledgment secure in manet

The mobile adhoc network is a group of mobile nodes without having the fixed infrastructure. Due to the infrastructure less network and distributed nature, make mobile adhoc network susceptible to malicious attackers. So, we use an intrusion detection system called Enhanced Adaptive ACKnowledgement (EAACK) especially for mobile adhoc networks. Based on the digital signature algorithm (DSA) and RSA the EAACK is designed. To enhance the strength of the security in the mobile adhoc networks, we introduce an innovative approach called Hybrid Security Protocol that provides integrity, confidentiality and authentication. This Hybrid Security Protocol consists of Cryptography based on Elliptic curve, Dual-RSA algorithm and Message Digest MD5. Encryption is achieved by using Elliptic Curve Cryptography, Dual-RSA algorithm for authentication and MD-5 for integrity. By using a combination of both symmetric and asymmetric cryptographic techniques, we achieve better security with integrity.

Dr H Shaheen Dr h shaheen

Effect of initial weight of chicks on performance of iraqi local chickens

The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of initial chick weight at the first day of the hatch on subsequent performance of Iraqi local chickens. 150 unsexed chicks of local chickens weighted at first day of hatch then divided to five groups (A, B, C, D, E) according to the initial weight (26.4, 31.89, 36.38, 41.09, 46.91) gm, the birds were reared in a wooden cage consist of individual compartments with dimensions (30×30×40) cm, The feed and water was available adlibitum, The birds and feed weighted weekly by sensitive balance. The result shows that initial weight had a significant effect on body weight, weight gain, feed and protein consumption, and growth rate but not significant on feed and protein conversion, where group E showed the best results, The relationship between initial body weight and productive traits were studied and the prediction equation of productive traits depending on initial weight shows highly significant

RAFEA MOHAMMEDTAHER KHULEL Rafea mohammedtaher khulel

Pembelajaran edutainment dalam penanaman karakter cinta tanah air pada anak usia dini di sekolah dasar

Konsep edutainment mencoba memadukan antara pendidikan dan hiburan, yang didalam konsep edutainment tersebut terdapat beberapa pendekatan yang lebih kita kenal sebagai SAVI (Somatik, Auditori, Visual dan Intelektual). Metode penelitian ini menggunakan jenis penelitian Library research, yaitu jenis penelitian yang dilakukan dan difokuskan pada penelaahan, pengkajian dan pembahasan literature-literatur, baik klasik maupun modern. Literature berbahsa arab, inggris, Indonesia dan sebagainya yang ada kaitannya dengan persoalan ini. Penelitian ini bersifat analisis deskriptif. Sumber data penelitian ini yaitu: Sumber primer dari pemikiran Beby De Poter. Sumber skunder meliputi: buku, artikel atau esai yang membahas konsep edutainment, dan buku yang berkenaan dengan konsep psikologi belajar anak, serta buku pendidikan karakter, terutama karakter cinta tanah air. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan: (1) Pembelajaran Edutainment Dalam Penanaman Karakter Cinta Tanah Air Bagi Anak Usia Dini Di Sekolah Dasar, yaitu: menumbuhkan karakter cinta tanah air, memunculkan emosi minat anak seperti rasa senang dan gembira dalam pembelajaran, guru dalam menyampaikan pembelajaran di kelas harus menunjukkan sikap kepedulian terhadap peserta didik. (2) Proses Penanaman Karakter Cinta Tanah Air Bagi Anak Usia Dini Di Sekolah Dasar, yaitu: proses pembelajaran interaksi antara siswa dan guru terbangun suasana menyenangkan, fleksibiltas guru dalam menyampaikan materi menyesuaikan dengan emosi peserta didik, hubungan keakraban dan persahabatan sebagaimana teman sendiri, dan guru memberikan kebabasan berexspresi kepada perserta didik pada saat proses pembelajaran.

EDUCARE: Journal of Primary Education Educare: journal of primary education

Content analysis of visual representations in biology textbooks across selected educational boards from asia

The aim of the present study was to explore the nature of visual representations in biology textbooks across five educational boards across Asia through quantitative and qualitative content analysis. Descriptive statistics was used during the quantitative analysis. Qualitative content analysis involved a deductive approach where visuals in these textbooks were examined and categorized into different categories based on a newly developed typology and taxonomy of visual representation (coding scheme). Under this newly developed typology and taxonomy (coding scheme), visuals in biology textbooks can be categorized into 19 different categories. The findings of the study summarized the characteristics of visual representation usage in these textbooks in terms of their prevalence, distributional differences and trends. Through this study, a new perspective on the taxonomy and classification of visual representations, especially for biology textbooks, has been proposed. Biology teachers and textbook authors can gain insights through the findings of the study. Subjects: General Science; Biology; Secondary Education

Dr T Premalatha Dr t premalatha

Automated result management system for students results processing

This study was carried out to verify all the manual process involved in generating Students Examination Result and to seek a way of automating the system for effective operations. Computer and its appreciations have become vital tools in the economic, industrial and social development of advanced countries of the world. Most educational institutions in Nigeria, such as Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges of Education still operate on the manual method of record keeping and computation of students’ grade point averages (GPA) which is time-consuming and error-prone especially when the number of students is large. This paper examines the inadequacies involved in the manual method of calculating Students CGPA (cumulative grade point average) and proposes a solution by developing a software application to facilitate the automated processing of the results. The software was developed using the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet program. The developed software was tested and found to performed well and produced expected results on completion. With it, it was possible to compute Grade Point Average (GPA) and Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) for each student based on examination scores entered. The new system has some qualities such as reduction in the cost of processing of information, reduction in time spent in computing GPA and generating transcripts, increase in accuracy and efficiency, and elimination of duplication of effort which makes it superior to the manual system of student record keeping. This new system is flexible and can be modified to suit any kind of student’s record-keeping and data processing.

Ogala Justin onyarin Ogala justin onyarin

3. a cross sectional study to determine the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and effect of jaggery tea to combat the premenstrual symptoms on students of al –ameen medical college, vijayapur.

The prevalence of PMS (prevalence of pre most common disorder among the women’s. It has high impact on women’s health, emotions and behaviours during certain days of menstrual cycle. Aim: To determine the symptoms of PMS. Material and methods: PMS.The sampling frame is comprised individual aged 18 was used. Then respondents were given information regarding benefits of jaggery tea consumption to over PMS. Preparation of jaggery tea: add the one cup of water for boiling, and then add the requirement amount jaggery. Add filter to discard the solids. Study subjects were asked to consume jaggery tea five days prior and after the date of menstrual cycle continuously for 3 months. Study subjects were ask premenstrual syndrome screening toll before and after jaggery tea consumption. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics and effect of jaggery tea was evaluated using paired t Result: from PMS, 120(61.5%) of them had mild PMS, 55(28.2%) had moderate PMS and only few 20(10.3%) of then had sever PMS. Conclusion: role in curing PMS

Shwetha hitnal Shwetha hitnal

Nutritional background of low-income pulmonary tuberculosis patients on anti-tuberculosis therapy at infectious disease hospital, calabar, nigeria: a case-control study

Background: Poverty and malnutrition are associated with the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Nutritional reintegration with anti-TB therapy may improve treatment success rate. Aim: To investigate the nutritional status of low-income pulmonary TB patients in relation to the different anti-TB treatment phases. Methods: Forty five pulmonary TB patients and 40 controls aged 19-54 years, receiving treatment at Infectious Disease Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria, between September 2018 and July 2019 were studied. Serum total protein, albumin, iron and vitamin A were determined by colorimetric and HPLC methods respectively. Height and weight were measured and BMI computed, and data analysed using Student’s t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson’s correlation at P<0 P=0.001).>0.05) respectively. Albumin and iron were significantly lower in CPAT-HIV compared with CPAT patients. Albumin correlated positively and significantly with iron (r=0.405, p=0.006) in TB patients. Conclusion: Tuberculosis is associated with decreased BMI, albumin, iron and vitamin A, and higher total protein, and globulin, suggesting that malnutrition may be associated with TB risk, poor treatment compliance and outcomes

Eworo Raymond Eworo raymond

Management of teachers’ soft skills development and flexible learning environment as a correlate of teachers’ effectiveness in unity schools in south-eastern states, nigeria

This study investigated the management of teachers’ soft skills development and flexible learning environment as a correlate of teachers’ effectiveness in Unity schools in South- Eastern states of Nigeria. The correlational research design was adopted for the study. Two research questions were answered while two hypotheses were tested. The population of the study comprised all the 901 teachers of the 14 Unity schools in the 5 South-Eastern states of Nigeria. Stratified and disproportionate sampling techniques were used to select 399 sample size that was determined from the population using the Taro Yamane formula. Two sets of instruments titled; “Management of Seamless Technology Integration Questionnaire” and “Teachers’ Effectiveness Questionnaire” were used for data collection. Face and content validity was ensured by five experts including the researcher’s supervisors. The reliability coefficients of the two instruments were calculated to be 0.79 and 0.81 using Cronbach Alpha method. Multiple and simple regressions were used to answer the research questions. Analysis of variance associated with multiple regression and t-test associated with simple regression was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. It was found that management of teachers’ soft skills development and flexible learning environment positively correlate (0.92 and 0.86 respectively) to teachers’ effectiveness in Unity schools in the South-Eastern states of Nigeria. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the management of seamless technology integration is positively and highly significant to teachers’ effectiveness in Unity schools in the South-Eastern states of Nigeria. It was therefore recommended among others that school administrators in the 14 Unity schools in the South-Eastern states should immediately embark on self-development in the management of seamless technology integration

FXintegrity Publishing Fxintegrity publishing

Habitat dependent variations in the rate of oxygen consumption, rate of ammonia excretion and o: n ratio of freshwater bivalve, lamellidens marginalis from lotic and lentic water of godavari river at paithan, during summer.

Considering the site (habitat) specific variations in the metabolic activities in the freshwater bivalves, we reported here the changes in the rate of oxygen consumption, rate of ammonia excretion and O: N ratio in the freshwater bivalve mollusc, Lamellidens marginalis (Lamark) from lotic and lentic water habitats on April-May during summer season. The adult freshwater bivalves, Lamellidens marginalis (82-84 mm shell length) from lotic and lentic water near Jayakwadi dam on Godavari river was selected for determination of rate of oxygen consumption, rate of ammonia excretion and O: N ratio. The adult bivalves from lotic water habitat showed high rate of oxygen consumption and low rate of ammonia excretion. The O: N ratio showed higher values in bivalves collected from lotic water than lentic water during summer season. The results of study are discussed in the light of possible physiological processes in freshwater bivalve molluscs.

Dr. Pritesh Ramanlal  Gugale Dr. pritesh ramanlal gugale

A study of foreign direct investment in indian pharmaceutical industry

Human being has some basic needs which include Food, Clothing & Shelter, in addition to above Healthcare, Education, Sanitation are also core part of basic necessities in modern society. In above mention basic necessities Healthcare facility was near to unavailable till independence for majority of citizens in country but this picture change dramatically with help of FDI allowed by Govt. of India. Foreign Direct Investment as a strategic element of funding is required in every develop & developing country. FDI inflows are long term in nature which causes source of non-debt finance, as well as bring modern & innovative technology in country by creating international network. In this paper, author attempted to discover how FDI is crucially impact on Indian Pharmaceutical Sectors progress by stimulating domestic investment & new employment opportunities, improving healthcare facilities to citizens in India. With the help of available relevant secondary data, a qualitative approach was followed for the study. It was found in study that the major factors responsible for attracting FDI in pharmaceutical sector are rise in outsourcing activities, demand in the generics market, demand from emerging segments, increase in domestic demand, large numbers of forthcoming patent expires. On the other hand Indian pharmaceutical industry is facing some challenges such as, low government expenditure on healthcare, poor healthcare infrastructure in rural areas, lack of proper Govt. policy to attract larger FDI in healthcare sector.

ANSHUMAN VIJAY MAGAR Anshuman vijay magar

Dr.ismath shameem

Background and objectives: Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is the most common clinical presentation of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). The objective designed for the study was to evaluate the effect of a Unani formulation in HMB (Kaṭhrat-i-Tamṭh). Methods: An open observational single arm clinical study was carried out at the Department of Ilmul Qabalat wa Amraze Niswan, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Hospital, Bengaluru. Diagnosed cases (n=30) of HMB with pelvic pathology were included in the study. Unani formulation comprises of Khurma (Phoenix dactylifera Linn), Rasaut (Berberis aristata), Talmakhana (Asteracantha longifolia Linn), Lodh pathani (SymplocosracemosaRoxb) was administered orally in powder form in a dose of 3g with 2g sugar, twice daily for seven days/cycle for three consecutive cycles.Main outcome measures were clinical response of 30-50% in menstrual blood loss (MBL) assessed with pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC) and duration of bleeding (DOB). Improvement in Hb% and quality of life (QOL) assessed with menorrhagia impact questionnaire (MIQ). Data were analyzed using paired Student ‘t’ test, Results: Clinical response of 30-50% in MBL and DOB was achieved in 86.7% (p< 0.001**) and 56.7% (p< 0.001**) patients respectively and improvement in Hb% and QOL was achieved in 16.7% (p=0.228) and 100% (p< 0.001**) patients respectively. Conclusion:Unani formulation had a significant effect in controlling the bleeding by reduction in MBL and DOB with improvement in QOL

Dr ismath shameem

Study of biophysical and structural mechanisms of resistance in pigeonpea against pod borer complexstudy of biophysical and structural mechanisms of resistance in pigeonpea against pod borer complex

The maximum H. armigera and M. vitrata infestation was recorded in Pusa-992 (3.72% and 7.90%) and in D2 (1st week of July) sown crop with infestation of 4.54 and 13.08 per cent, respectively. Whereas, the infestation of pod fly, M. obtusa was maximum in Manak (2.72%) and 2.58 per cent pod infestation in D2 (1st week of July) sown crop. The infestation of pod borer complex was negatively associated with pod wall thickness (-0.909**, - 0.739*, -0.870*, -0.834*, -0.840*, -0.705* and -0.745*) and non-glandular type A (-0.730*, -0.945**, -0.768*, -0.766*, -0.923** and -0.728*) and (-0.751*, -0.759*, 0.766*, -0.852*, -0.802*, -0.895** and -0.832*) glandular type B (-0.864*, -0.734*, -0.871* and -0.858*) and (-0.729*, -0.705*, -0.730* and -0.845*) density of pod trichomes of top and middle canopy of the plant. Fat (-0.884**, -0.754*, -0.743*, -0.871* and -0.750*) phenol (-0.900** and -0.806*) and tannin (-0.792*, -0.812* and -0.763*) content showed negative correlation with the pod infestation, whereas, crude protein (0.740*, 0.881**, 0.734*, 0.810*, 0.823*, 0.856*, 0.844* and 0.711*) and total soluble sugar (0.738*, 0.792*, 0.793*, 0.898**, 0.714*, 0.816*, 0.888** and 0.819*) showed positive association. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the variety Pusa-992 and Manak was most susceptible to the pod borers.

DR. BABU LAL JAT Dr. babu lal jat

Dissemination of link state information for enhancing security in mobile ad hoc networks

A mobile adhoc network is a Self-configuring network of mobile routers connected by wireless links. In the mobile adhoc network, each and every device moves independently in any direction so that there are frequent changes in the links. It is essential to learn the position of the neighbors because there is increase in location-aware services. So, there is a chance that the malicious nodes are easily abused the process. The significant problem in mobile networks is correctness of node locations and also it is primarily challenging in the presence of adversaries. So, the neighbor position verification protocol is used to a fully distributed, a lightweight NPV procedure which allows each node to obtain the locations advertised by its neighbors and asses their truthfulness. Further to extend neighbor position verification protocols in the proactive model that need to each node constantly verify the position of its neighbors. So, we introduce a technique called secure link state updating which provides secure proactive topology discovery that is multiply useful for the network operation. This technique is vigorous against individual attackers, it is capable to adjust its capacity between local and network-wide topology discovery, and also operating in networks of frequently changing topology and membership nodes. Experimental results show that the proposed system is high efficiency in terms of security when compared to the existing system.

Dr H Shaheen Dr h shaheen

An analytical overview of covid 2019- a scientific discussion, international journal of creative research thoughts

Corona virus pandemic has swept a major section of the world population. In terms of infectivity it�s higher than any pandemic in the recent past. Corona virus, a member of the family Coronaviridae, spread from bat to human through an intermediate host pangolin. It has lower mortality rate than the previous pandemics in last 100 years such as Spanish Flu(1918-20),Asian Flu (1957-58), SARS Corona virus (SARS-Cov) (2003), H1N1 Swine Flu Pandemic(2009-10), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) (2012), West African Ebola (2014-16) etc. Research shows Covid spike attaches ACE2 receptor; it leads to a release of cytokine into the blood capillaries near the alveoli and may ultimately turn into pneumonia. The alveoli get collapsed leading ARDF. The pulmonary inflammation proceeds to systemic inflammation that causes multiple organ failure. Drug like Chloroquine, Lopinavir/ritonavir, and Remdesivir may halt the spread of the virus in the body. Antipyretic is prescribed to reduce the temperature. This article comprises of detail mechanism of the dreadful disease along with its diagnosis and proposed treatment. This exploratory study mainly designed to generate awareness and provide information to the individuals who want to know the A to Z of Covid in nutshell. This article may create a pathway to number of upcoming scientific researches and may attract them to work on this field to enhance the probability of inventing appropriate vaccine and medicine to fight against this contagious disease and to win the battle against this Global Pandemic.

Dipa mitra

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