Pembelajaran edutainment dalam penanaman karakter cinta tanah air pada anak usia dini di sekolah dasar

Konsep edutainment mencoba memadukan antara pendidikan dan hiburan, yang didalam konsep edutainment tersebut terdapat beberapa pendekatan yang lebih kita kenal sebagai SAVI (Somatik, Auditori, Visual dan Intelektual). Metode penelitian ini menggunakan jenis penelitian Library research, yaitu jenis penelitian yang dilakukan dan difokuskan pada penelaahan, pengkajian dan pembahasan literature-literatur, baik klasik maupun modern. Literature berbahsa arab, inggris, Indonesia dan sebagainya yang ada kaitannya dengan persoalan ini. Penelitian ini bersifat analisis deskriptif. Sumber data penelitian ini yaitu: Sumber primer dari pemikiran Beby De Poter. Sumber skunder meliputi: buku, artikel atau esai yang membahas konsep edutainment, dan buku yang berkenaan dengan konsep psikologi belajar anak, serta buku pendidikan karakter, terutama karakter cinta tanah air. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan: (1) Pembelajaran Edutainment Dalam Penanaman Karakter Cinta Tanah Air Bagi Anak Usia Dini Di Sekolah Dasar, yaitu: menumbuhkan karakter cinta tanah air, memunculkan emosi minat anak seperti rasa senang dan gembira dalam pembelajaran, guru dalam menyampaikan pembelajaran di kelas harus menunjukkan sikap kepedulian terhadap peserta didik. (2) Proses Penanaman Karakter Cinta Tanah Air Bagi Anak Usia Dini Di Sekolah Dasar, yaitu: proses pembelajaran interaksi antara siswa dan guru terbangun suasana menyenangkan, fleksibiltas guru dalam menyampaikan materi menyesuaikan dengan emosi peserta didik, hubungan keakraban dan persahabatan sebagaimana teman sendiri, dan guru memberikan kebabasan berexspresi kepada perserta didik pada saat proses pembelajaran.

EDUCARE: Journal of Primary Education Educare: journal of primary education

Bioefficacy and persistency of insecticides against blister beetle, mylabris pustulata (thunb.) in pigeonpea, cajanus -cajan (l.) millsp

Blister beetle, Mylabris pustulata (Thunb.) is a polyphagous pest attacking flowers of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), cotton (Gossypium sp), lady’s finger (Abelmoschus esculentus), mungbean (Vigna radiata), urdbean (Vigna mungo), ricebean (Vigna umbellata) etc. throughout the country. Because of its polyphagous feeding nature and hard protective adaptation against insecticides, long term management of this pest with a single molecule is difficult. Therefore, field cum laboratory experiments were carried out for three consecutive cropping seasons during kharif 2008-09, 2009-10 and 2010-11 to find out the persistence and efficacy of different insecticides. It was found that decamethrin 2.8EC was 3334 times toxic with lowest LC50 value (0.0000563) followed by monocrotophos 36SL as compared with endosulfan which was the least toxic with LC50 value (0.1877). Insecticides evaluated for their persistent toxicity during 2009-10 revealed that decamethrin and thiodicarb caused cent per cent mortality of adult blister beetle immediately after spray. At 8th days after spraying, decamethrin caused 60 per cent mortality. Insecticides evaluated for their efficacy during the year 2010-11 revealed that the plants were found free from adult blister beetle population in treatments involving decamethrin and cypermethrin even at ten days after spray. Among all the treatments, spraying of thiodicarb 75WP @ 625 g ha-1 provided the highest grain yield (18.87 q ha-1). Maximum cost-benefit ratio was observed in monocrotophos 36SL, cypermethrin 25EC and decamethrin 2.8EC

DR. BABU LAL JAT Dr. babu lal jat

Inhibition of calcium oxalate crystals growth by macrotyloma uniflorum (lam.) verdc, phaseolus lunatus linn, and phaseolus vulgaris linn: an in vitro study

Purpose: The study aims to explore all possible morphological features of calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals and their habits in case of inhibition. Methods: The study was carried out on a glass slide to observe the growth and inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals by using infusions (5-20%) of Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc, Phaseolus lunatus Linn. and Phaseolus vulgaris Linn. The reagents of the double diffusion gel technique were used for this purpose. Results: Calcium oxalate crystals are divided into three types: calcium oxalate monohydrate, dihydrate, and trihydrate. These types are further divided into sub-types based on their morphology. In the case of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), these crystals are donuts, dumbbells, needles, platy, prismatic, rosette, round edges and X-shaped. Calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) is the elongated large rods and tetragonal bipyramidal forms. In the present study, dendritic or arborescent (tree-like platy crystals) were observed for the first time as part of a COM growth. Long chain loose agglomerates and compact aggregated crystals are the typical pattern of calcium oxalate crystals. All tested infusions caused growth inhibition of calcium oxalate crystals. Smaller nucleation zones and defective shapes of the grown crystals are declared different growth inhibition patterns. Conclusion: This study gives extensive information about morphology, aggregation and growth inhibition of calcium oxalate crystals.

Dr. Salman Ahmed Dr. salman ahmed

Comparative analysis of plant diversity with reference to chamundi hills, in mysore district of karnataka state

Comparative analysis of plant diversity with reference to Chamundi hills, in Mysore District of Karnataka State

Veerabhadraswamy AL Veerabhadraswamy al

Effect of culcasia falcifolia on the biogenic amine levels in the brain tissue of pentylenetetrazole induced seizure in mice

In the present study the effect of the ethanol extract of Culcasia falcifolia on the neurotransmitter levels were evaluated. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (60 mg/kg body weight, i. p) was administered to all the groups of mice to induce convulsions. After observing the convulsion, all groups rats were sacrificed, whole brain was dissected out and separated the forebrain. The brain tissue was homogenized and then centrifuged. The aqueous phase was taken for the assay. The reading was obtained using spectroflurimeter. The result of the present study shows that the ethanol extract of Culcasia falcifolia at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the level of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA and also showed significant increase in the levels of dopamine, noradrenalin and serotonin when compared to seizure control group (PTZ treated group) and was almost equivalent to control group. The findings of the study showed that the extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight significantly (p<0.001) increased the levels of GABA, dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline. The ethanol extract of Culcasia falcifolia exerted antiepileptic activity by decreasing seizure susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice due to restoration of GABA, serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline concentration levels in mice brain.

Gracelyn Portia Gracelyn portia

Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites of local chicken slaughtered at jalingo market, taraba state, nigeria

Gastrointestinal parasites constitute a serious problem to poultry production in Africa. But often times they are usually ignored by the majority of farmers. Whereas, it is one of the major leading causes of ill-health and high mortality rates in the poultry industry. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of chicken slaughtered at the Jalingo market. A total of 500 gastrointestinal tracts of local chicken comprising of 250 from males and 250 from females were collected from the poultry slaughtering and dressing section of the Jalingo market, and screened for gastrointestinal helminths using the saturated sodium chloride floatation techniques. An overall prevalence of 28.6% (143/500) was recorded with a prevalence of 16.8% (84/500) in males and 11.8% (59/500) females. Nine different species parasites comprising five nematodes and four cestodes, were recorded. Nematodes were the most predominant intestinal parasite with a prevalence rate of 89 (62.2%). And Ascaridia galli 45 (50.5%) was found to be the most prevalent nematode. Other nematodes observed were Capillaria annulata 13.4% (12/89), Heterakis gallinarum 2.2% (2/89), Strongyloides avium 32.5% (29/89), and Syngamus trachea 1.1% (1/89) having the lowest prevalence. Railliatina tetragona 57.4% (31/143) was the most prevalent cestode recorded. Other Cestodes were Hymenolepis carioca 27.7% (15/54), Raillietina cesticellus 12.9% (7/54), and Davainea proglottina 1.8% (1/54). No trematode was recorded in this study. This study showed that nematodes and cestodes were the common helminth parasites in local chicken. There is therefore the need for educating the farmers on the impact of gastrointestinal parasite infection in chicken and the need to institute good management practices so as to reduce their effects on productivity. Sex of the chicken had no statistically significant difference (X2 = 6.12, df = 1; P > 0.05) on the prevalence of helminths.

Bitrus Inuwa Bitrus inuwa

A collective review of the synthetic approaches disclosed in prior patents to synthesize the renowned drug, lamotrigine

In this review work, we have extracted the essential details from prior patents about the synthesis of popular drug Lamotrigine. This initiative will provide a platform for the global researchers to invent new or innovate over the existing synthetic routes to isolate Lamotrigine with good yield and purity. The details of patents were sourced from “Google patents” search tool and the process specific details were elaborated with reaction schemes. In this context, twenty-four reactions schemes were tabulated for the better understanding of the disclosed ventures. The entire chronological exfoliation of details on the synthesis of Lamotrigine provides a clear evolutional vision of its synthetic flourish towards drug commercialization.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Mediterranean journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in libyan patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 2013-2022

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading reason of death among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Individuals with DM have a two to five time's greater risk of developing CVD than non-DM. Unfortunately, little data exists on Libya's prevalence and characteristics of cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors and to assess their control among patients with type 2 DM (T2DM). All the patients with T2DM who attended the outpatient clinic at National Diabetes Hospital from September 2013 to April 2022 were interviewed and examined and included in this study. Demographical data age, smoking habit, body mass index measure, drug intake, history of previous cardiovascular events, blood pressure and fasting lipid profile were all recorded. 1049 patients have completed the study with a mean age of 54.06 ± 14.5 years old (females represented 68.0% of the studied sample size), there were different duration of diabetes between the studied sample, varying from newly diagnosed patients (n = 265, 25.2%) and above ten years of diabetes duration patients (n = 488, 46.5%). Active smoking in 129 patients (12.3%), the bodyweight of studied patients ranged from 44.0 Kg to 186 Kg (85.65 ± 1.73), 820 of the patients had uncontrolled body weight (78.85%). Uncontrolled blood pressure, even with treatment, was found in 304 patients (29.0%), uncontrolled dyslipidaemia in 45 patients (04.3%), and uncontrolled hyperglycaemia in 816 patients (77.9%). Established CVD was positive in 295 patients (28.2%), maximum age group was in 54 - 74 years (n = 516, 49.3%). The most typical age group with multiple (more than three) CVD risk factors was 54 - 74 years of age, were female patients with more than ten years of history of diabetes, uncontrolled hyperglycemia (HBA1c > 10%), uncontrolled body weight, uncontrolled blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Thus, the present data indicated that Libyan patients with diabetes mellitus have high CVD risk factors. Even in patients with previous events, these uncontrolled risk factors elevate the likelihood of repeated cardiovascular events. Patients with diabetes mellitus necessitate a more aggressive approach to control the modified risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Mediterranean journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

Dosing in the neonatal intensive care unit

Over the years, pharmacy has developed from a simple floor stock system to a complex unit dose, I.V. additive, and clinical pharmacy program. This development would have never been possible without the support of the nursing, medical, and administrative staff. The support of obtained slowly by developing services that increase the pharmacist's credibility as a team member concerned with the pediatric and neonate patients. These services include a unit dose program, I.V. additive program, drug information services, and pharmacy medication program. One area in which pharmacist does not obtain a background from generalized training is the area of pediatric dosing. Pediatric pharmacists must learn in clinical practice the proper dosing of the pediatric patient and neonate patient. The dose must be checked periodically. In the premature or newborn infant, the pharmacist must consider the immature renal and hepatic function so that he/she does not overdose initially and then underdose as the infant grows and matures. Neonates are a special group of children, they are less than 30 days, and within this group preterm babies (that means less than 37 weeks). Determining the correct dose for drugs used to treat neonates is a critically vital factor. Prematurity affects kidney and liver function and the proper adjustment of drug doses is crucial [1]. The absence of drug level necessitates the adjustment of drug doses and the presence of qualified oriented dependable pharmacists. Drug doses are not numbers, or decimals used within the therapeutic range. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) needs a system for the calculation and preparation of drugs [2].

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Mediterranean journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

Biodiversity census and its significance in india: a scrutiny

Conservation of Biodiversity is an activity must carry out by all individuals in the world to share the benefits derived from biodiversity. It is a critical task to conduct the biodiversity census and conservation (Biodiversity C & C or Biodiversity C2). Throughout the world several Governament and Non-Governamental organizations work together as a unit to maintain our biodiversity in safe mode. India is a mega diverse country with rich biodiversity. The development of modern science and technologies have increased the value of biodiversity and associated traditional knowledge. To save valuable biodiversity and traditional knowledge of our country, National biodiversity board and State biodiversity board constantly involved in this approach and biodiversity law's support to conserve the living diversity.

Veerabhadraswamy AL Veerabhadraswamy al

A systematic review protocol for chronic low back pain subjects with respiratory muscle involvement

Abstract Background. Numerous studies have found that various core muscles are involved in subjects with chronic low back pain. The evidence for profiles of respiratory muscle involvement in normal low backache subjects has not been reviewed explicitly for low back pain. Aims. The study’s primary objective was to scientifically analyze, condense, and to evaluate the evidence for the involvement of respiratory muscles in subjects suffering from chronic low back pain. Methods. This evaluation procedure will trail the guidelines of PRISMA and MOOSE. The assessors will use a custombuilt tool to extract data from the studies, regardless of the methodology used. A modified Downs and Black index will be used to assess the superiority of the methods used in the selected studies. Results. This index evaluates the characteristics of the subjects, the timing of the outcomes, and the characteristics of the interventions, and quantitative, formal analysis, so-called meta-analysis, is performed if necessary. The study’s effect, including the evidence, will be determined using the GRADE a framework for a systematic approach. Earlier research has found that core muscles are involved, and the interventions are tailored to include deficiencies and intrusions that target specific muscle groups. Conclusion. As an additional component that can be targeted by clinical practitioners in their day-to-day practice and added to rehab programmes, this systematic review protocol will summarise the list of evidence available for the rehabilitation of low back ache and highlight the involvement of respiratory muscles in lowback ache subjects. Keywords: chronic low back pain, diaphragmatic breathing exercises, respiratory muscles.

Nagaraj sibbala Nagaraj sibbala

Making sense of ‘homemaking’ in the diaspora: the case of the indo-surinamese hindustanis in the netherlands

Diaspora groups across the world have been known for adopting and inventing processes and forms of ‘homemaking’ in their host lands. This article brings into focus the methods of homemaking assumed by the Indo-Surinamese Hindustani diaspora in the Netherlands, which owes its origin to colonial dispersal. Considering their status as a ‘twice-migrant’ diaspora, the process may appear to be distinctly difficult for the Hindustanis, a position this article seeks to examine. The article interrogates the notion of homemaking in the case of the Hindustanis through ethnographic conversational interviews of Indo-Surinamese interlocutors—a unique perspective based on personal histories and everyday experiences.

Roshni Sengupta Roshni sengupta

Regards croisés sur les processus d’apprentissage/acquisition implicite des constituants linguistiques des langues par des apprenants

Cet article vise à mettre en évidence les expériences et points de vue de certains auteurs sur l’apprentissage implicite du langage humain. L’apprentissage implicite est une procédure fondamentale. Le comportement devient sensible aux caractéristiques structurales. Dans le premier point de vue, il y a eu trois expériences qui ont montré que les jeunes apprenants sont sensibles aux régularités lexicales qui n’ont pas été explicitement enseignées; la deuxième expérience portait sur l’utilisation de la répétition des lettres quant à la troisième, elle portait sur la préférence des consonnes uniques ou doublées. Les résultats de ces expériences ont montré que les jeunes apprenants sont sensibles à la fréquence de doubles consonnes, à l’identité des consonnes qui peuvent ou ne peuvent pas se répéter. Les difficultés innées à l’apprentissage de la langue ont fait l’objet du deuxième point de vue. Elles sont de deux ordres: la langue en tant qu’un ensemble de séquences sonores et les indices de découverte d’un mot dans un discours. Les enfants segmentent les mots à partir de huit mois. Les connaissances procédurales se mettent en place par la répétition mentale et pratique. Les propriétés structurelles et statistiques sont à la base de l’apprentissage de la langue.

Assanvo

Effect of pranayama on type 2 diabetes on metropolitan people

The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of pranayama on type-2 diabetes on metropolitan people. In the present study researcher wants to observe the effect of pranayama on type 2 diabetes on metropolitan people and to develop a specific package for type 2 diabetes. For this purpose researcher collect 60 sample from nearest diabetic Clinic and Hospital in the city and it is randomly divided into two groups one is experimental and another is control group. In the study researcher used bio-chemistry lab tools. In the study research design used Pre-test, post-test control-experimental group and researcher used two variable type 2 diabetes as dependent and pranayama used as independent variable and in the study there was significant effect of yogic practices on type 2 diabetes.

Shekhar Boro Shekhar boro

Propranolol effect on behaviour of mice in the presence of phenytoin using elevated plus maze

Drug-drug interaction is an important issue for the development of safe pharmaceutical drugs. Propranolol is a non-selective, competitive antagonist at beta-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol is used to control hypertension, pheochromocytoma, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Also, it is used to control symptoms of sympathetic overactivity in management of hyperthyroidism, anxiety disorders and tremor. Phenytoin is a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, it is a major anti-convulsant drug that is very effective in controlling a wide variety of seizure disorders. In this study, elevated plus maze test was applied using five groups of male Albino mice, where each group consists of six mice. The first group is control and given 01.0% tween 80 with a dose of 5.0 ml/kg, the second group received propranolol 10 mg/kg, the third group received phenytoin 20 mg/kg, the fourth group received a combination of propranolol and phenytoin and the fifth group received diazepam (1.0 mg/kg) as a standard. It was found that propranolol alone produces anti-anxiety effect which is abolished when administered with phenytoin. Thus, the combined treatment of propranolol and phenytoin showed no significant difference compared to phenytoin alone or propranolol alone. It can be concluded that propranolol has anti-anxiety like effect an phenytoin antagonizes the propranolol anxiolytic effect when administered together. Propranolol, phenytoin and the combination of both decrease the spontaneous motor activity of mice. Propranolol and phenytoin partially antagonize each other on the spontaneous motor activity.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Mediterranean journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

Therapeutic potentials of crocin in medication of neurological disorders

Neurological sicknesses are severe, multifactorial, debilitating disorders that may cause neurodegeneration. Neuroprotection protects the structure and capacity of neurons from affronts emerging from cell injuries instigated by an assortment of specialists or neurodegenerative diseases. Various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and epilepsy, afflict many people worldwide, with increasing age representing the leading risk factor. Crocin is a natural carotenoid compound with therapeutic potential in managing neurological disease. In this review, we focused on the therapeutic capabilities of Crocin as a neuroprotective agent. The general neuroprotective impact and the various conceivable essential components identified with Crocin have been examined. In light of the substantial proof indicating the neuro-pharmacological viability of Crocin to different exploratory standards, it is concluded that Crocin exerts direct antioxidant, antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities by multiple signalling pathways. Besides, Crocin was found to elevate dopamine levels in the brain during the experimental model of Parkinson's disease. Thus, this compound has been demonstrated to be a promising option for treating neurodegenerative diseases with few adverse effects. It should be further considered as a potential contender for neuro-therapeutics, concentrating on the mechanistic and clinical evidence for its effects.

Dr. Salman Ahmed Dr. salman ahmed

Effect of resveratrol on total protein and albumin in type 2 diabetes wound healing in rats

Resveratrol, a polyphenol predominantly present in red grapes, has attracted interest due to its possible health advantages. The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and vasodilatory properties of this substance indicate that it may have a beneficial effect on wound healing in individuals with diabetes mellitus. This study aims to determine the role of resveratrol on type 2 diabetic wound healing on total protein and albumin levels in rats. 20 male adult Albino Wistar rats were rendered diabetic using a high-fat diet and an alloxan injection (120 mg/kg). The rats were grouped into four: non-diabetic control group (negative control), diabetic control group (positive control), diabetic treatment group 1 (resveratrol: 10 mg/kg) and diabetic treatment group 2 (resveratrol: 20 mg/kg). Excisional wounds were created and monitored for wound closure over a defined treatment period of 14 days. Studies were conducted and expressed using physical and biochemical indices. The data demonstrated wound healing activities via biochemical indices, and histological and macroscopic methods. There was a difference in fasting blood glucose between the diabetic control group with the treatment groups. There was a difference between the diabetic control group compared to the group treated with resveratrol 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg in the weight of the rats. There was no significant acceleration in total albumin and globulin levels in the diabetic wounded group treated with resveratrol (10 mg and 20 mg). The results suggest that resveratrol treatment does not affect on total albumin and globulin levels in diabetic rats.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Mediterranean journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

Network resource allocation security techniques and challenges for vehicular communication network management

Internet of things describes the network of physical objects such as sensors, receivers, transmitters and other technologies which are used in VCN. In Vehicular communication network two or more vehicles are communicate with each other. VCN use advanced technologies to solve transportation related problems like long traffic delays, road accidents and air pollution. IOT based technologies make vehicular network smart. In this chapter we reviewed about network resource allocation security techniques, challenges and also discuss how we can make vehicular communication network smarter. We reviewed about different models and schemes for V2V communication. These schemes were developed to ensure a fair, efficient and transparent allocation of resource in an intelligent transportation system.

Vartika agarwal Vartika agarwal

Social skills development and educational outcome of special need students in special and inclusive settings

Lack of development of adequate social skills of special need students results in many disruptive behavior and poor academic gains. School setting is also an indicator of rise in academics and learning of social skills. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the social skills development and educational outcomes of special need students attending special and inclusive settings. Only 110 visually impaired students (60 from special and 50 form inclusive school setting) represent as special need children who participated as sample of the study. Data were collected from 5 Special Schools for Visually Impaired and 5 Inclusive Schools located in Delhi and NCR. Hindi Version of the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters: Self-rating form (MESSY) by Sharma (2000) was used to assess social skills development and to measure the educational outcome, aggregate percentage marks obtained by the students in their previous year‟s annual examination were collected from the records of the schools. Hypotheses formulated for this study were verified by applying appropriate statistical techniques- Mean, Standard Deviation and t-test. Significant differences found in the development of social skills and educational gains of the special need children in special vs. inclusive settings. Inclusive setting, to a great extent provides conducive learning environment and platform to develop social skills. Results of the study recommend implications for special and normal children, teachers and administrators.

Rubul Kalita Rubul kalita

The organisational structures and its economical and social efficiency

Object: In the competitive world of the market economy, every economic unit tries organizing everyday activities. Creating a set of suitable and cost-efficient organizational structures and making competitive products and services, top managers should find the mechanisms of building alternative ways of organizational structures. Methods: This paper presents the traditional and modern management structures, their historical steps, and developed methods. In this footfall of the market economy, companies in developing countries should build their management system’s organizational structure. They should advance a management system, managerial behaviours, and new management styles of developed ones. For this purpose in this research has learned organizational structures of developed companies. The investigation discusses the emergence, formation, and modern appearance of management structures that evaluate organizational structures’ importance in enterprises and companies’ activities, using vivid examples. Findings: Then, it has shown some forms of developed organizational structures of companies with the assessment of their highest role in management. In the conclusions and recommendations, we offer our approaches to solving existing organizational problems using the historical period of development to this day.

Ikboljon Odashev Mashrabjonovich Ikboljon odashev mashrabjonovich

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