Education and practice of pharmacy in libya

In Libya, pharmacy education and practice have a similar pattern to medical education and practice. Both sectors of public and private pharmacy education and pharmacy practice still significantly unchanged for more than forty years. It is a traditional pharmacy style of education and practice with a limited change of education and practice. Now, there are more than ten public pharmacy colleges and more than five private colleges established in Libya for a population of seven millions. In addition, there are several intermediate pharmacy institutes which provide a middle degree in pharmacy practice with a very limited knowledge in pharmaceutical sciences and training. Practice of pharmacy in Libya is still a classical mode with only dispensing medicines directly in almost a nonprofessional way and an old fashion way. However, the situation is old and complicated that needs a great deal of attention from different health policymakers and authorities such as Ministry of High Education and Ministry of Health, National Pharmaceutical Union and Libyan Association for Pharmacists.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Mediterranean journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

Analysis of prop1 gene in a cohort of tunisian patients with congenital combined pituitary hormone deficiency

Background: Non-syndromic combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) occurs due to defects in transcription factors that govern early pituitary development and the specification of hormone-producing cells. The most common mutations are in the Prophet of Pit-1 (ProP1) gene. This work aims to (1) report findings of genetic analyses of Tunisian patients with non-syndromic CPHD and (2) describe their phenotype patterns and their evolution through life. Methods: Fifteen patients from twelve unrelated families with variable clinical phenotypes were included after excluding autoimmune and acquired forms of non-syndromic CPHD. Detailed pedigree charts and auxological, hormonal, radiological, and therapeutic details were recorded. Sanger sequencing was performed, and sequences were analyzed with a specific focus on coding and splice site regions of the ProP1 gene. Retained variants were classified using several in silico pathogenicity prediction tools and the VarSome platform. Results: We identified the common p.Arg73Cys mutation in seven patients from four unrelated pedigrees. We found a novel homozygous mutation (c.340C>T) in one sporadic case. This mutation generates a truncated ProP1 protein, predicted to be non-functional, lacking the last 112 codons (p.(Gln114Ter)). We confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) the absence of large exon deletions or insertions in the remaining sporadic patients (7/8). Conclusions: We report two mutations {one newly identified [p.(Gln114Ter)] and one previously reported (p.Arg73Cys)} in five unrelated Tunisian families with non-syndromic CPHD. This work is of clinical importance as it reports the high frequency of the p.Arg73Cys mutation in Tunisian CPHD families. Our study also illuminated the involvement of novel gene(s) in the emergence of non-syndromic CPHD.

Mariam moalla Mariam moalla

Pygmalion effect and the process of coming –out: an exploratory case study on the identity development of student homosexuals

This exploratory case study employed Appreciative Inquiry Framework in answering the following questions: 1) What are the expectations set by the following to the student homosexuals; a) Self, b) Parents and c) Teachers; 2. What are the positive and negative effects of these expectations to the student homosexuals? and 3) How do these expectations affect the process of identity development of the student homosexuals?. The participants are five college students who identified themselves as homosexual. Written consent was secured to ensure that the research abides to the ethical standards. The data was triangulated through analysing the point of view of the student participants, their parents and their teachers. Results revealed that expectations set by the student homosexuals, their parent and teachers are all contributory factors that affect the identity development of student homosexuals. Moreover, it was revealed that those who have problems in their identity development experienced difficulties in their performance in school. Positive and negative effects of expectations were also noted as the participants shared their stories. With the results, it was recommended that teachers must treat all their students equally regardless of their gender preferences in life. Activities that support the holistic personalities of students must be given emphasis. The parents must support their children in whatever endeavour they take and provide them guidance to be successful in their academic pursuits. Lastly, a model of counselling procedure for student homosexuals was proposed.

Darrel Ocampo Darrel ocampo

Women entrepreneurs in india:opportunities and challenges” by in , issn-1006-7930, volume xii, issue vii, july 2020, page no:

Woman constitutes the family, which leads to the development of society and Nation. The social and economic development of women is necessary for the overall economic advancement of any society or a country. Entrepreneurship comprises venture activities that are the center of the recognition of various opportunities, creativity, and innovation in the production process and development of new business models and ventures. Entrepreneurship plays a major role in developing society of a fastdeveloping country like India. In comparison to other countries, the event of women entrepreneurship is extremely low in India, especially in rural areas. However, middle-class women aren't too eager to alter their roles because of fear of social backlash. The growth is more visible among high families in urban areas. Rural women frequently have primary responsibility for agricultural production, additionally to domestic responsibilities and childcare. In developing countries like India where the economic status of women is extremely pathetic especially in rural areas and opportunities of earning are very less. For establishing self-esteem and recognition in society, women are attracted to entrepreneurship. To sustain within the competitive market, businesses administered by women are mainly hooked into internal resources and their capabilities supported which they struggle to compete with the external environment. The present paper endeavors to study the opportunities and challenges of women entrepreneurs. The study aims to analyze the factors that encourage women entrepreneurs. This study is based on secondary data collected from previous research papers, journals given by various research scholars, blogs, and websites. This study concludes that women entrepreneurs should be provided with special training facilities to overcome challenges and for developing their skills and talents.

mamta gaur Mamta gaur

Innovation in research in undergraduate in india

This brief inspects the situation with research in Indian advanced education and offers an outline of the idea of undergrad (UG) research as a method for change. The article endeavors a short survey of the public authority endeavors to further develop advanced education examination, and underlines the restrictions of their degree just as their ramifications. Through a sweeping audit of existing experimental and subjective investigations, this concise shows the advantages and effects of UG research on improvement of insightful characteristics in understudies also its impact on foundations. At last, it suggests methods of drafting this idea in the current arrangement of undergrad schooling in India, in view of remedies by the Chamber on Undergrad Exploration

Dr Gedam Kamalakar Dr gedam kamalakar

Linkage planning of qtl for agronomic and root qualities utilizing ib370 × mas25 (oryza sativa l.)‑f2 population developed under water restricted conditions

Abstract In the existing investigation, experiments were carried out to assess the F2 population’s resultant of crosses between improved Basmati 370 and MAS25 for various agronomical and root traits cultivated under aerobic water conditions. Large variations for grain yield, root length, root dry biomass, root thickness and length/breadth ratio of grain have been displayed in segregating F2 populations. A close examination of phenotypic correlation exhibited that in the F2 population, root length was certainly matched up (r = 0.496) with root thickness. A DNA fingerprinting catalog for the currently studied F2 generation was arranged using 61 polymorphic SSR markers. Composite Interval Mapping (CIM) inspection with WinQTL cartographer version 2.5 disclosed 13 putative QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci), out of which 6 QTL were for root characters 7 QTL for agronomical characters situated on 1, 2, 3, 8 and 10 chromosomes. The QTL documented in the above-said generation, some promising F2 plants were also scrutinized and found in the homozygous or heterozygous state with high repetitions.

Rajesh Yogi Rajesh yogi

Feedback mechanisms of school heads on teacher performance

The use of performance feedback in the workplace has gained popularity over the years, yet school heads have been challenged in providing it to teachers. In the initial interview, they shared that evaluation results can impact teachers’ motivation, and that feedback should be done carefully. However, they failed to clearly articulate a specific mechanism that had been applied in this vital role. Also, no studies have provided clear detail on the feedback mechanism used by school heads in the past. For this reason, a study explored the feedback mechanisms employed by school heads in conveying the performance evaluation results to teachers. This study employed a narrative inquiry, and interviews were conducted with five school heads and five teachers who were chosen purposively for this research. Responses were recorded using a voice recorder. These responses were transcribed and analyzed using thematic narrative analysis. Based on transcripts, the study identified six emergent themes, such as conversational (one-on-one), relational, reflective, technical, reinforcing, and properly situated mechanisms in conveying performance evaluation results to teachers. Thus, a new feedback mechanism framework was developed.

Manuel Caingcoy Manuel caingcoy

Creat an application in excel spreadsheet program to formulate poultry rations by a trail and error method

This study aims to creating an application in the widespread Excel spreadsheet program, using the common feed materials used in poultry rations include maize, wheat, barley, soybean meal, wheat bran, sunflower oil, protein concentrate, limestone, salt, diCalcium Phosphate, premix of vitamins and minerals, anti-coccidial, where the function property in Excel program, especially the sum - product function, can be used to create an application for formulating rations in a trial and error method until reaching the desired goal in terms of its nutrient content: (dry matter, crude protein, lysine, methionine, methionine and cysteine, calcium, available phosphorus, crude fiber, ether extract, linoleic acid, chlorine, sodium, arginine, phenylalanine, phenylalanine and tyrosine, threonine, tryptophan, leucine, Valine, histidine, glycine, glycine and Serine, as well as soluble carbohydrates, ash)%, in addition to estimate the cost of the ration

RAFEA MOHAMMEDTAHER KHULEL Rafea mohammedtaher khulel

Compressive strength and durability properties of m35 grade concrete by replacing sand partially with vermiculite and granite powder and coarse aggregate by re-cycled aggregate

The Construction Industry is one of the industries contributing highest GDP in Indian economy. The material that is most chosen in construction Industry is concrete. Concrete is a material made with Cement, Fine aggregate in the form of sand, Coarse aggregate in the form of gravel and water. With increasing scarcity of sand, construction works are coming to jolt and thereby increasing the need for choosing an alternative material. Vermiculite is a material which after exfoliation can be used as a filler material replacing sand partially without affecting strength much. One more material Granite (by product which is a waste is causing lot of environmental Issues), produced from granite industry, is available in India in several million tons. Coarse aggregate generally used is a crushed aggregate obtained from rocks like granite, basalt and soon. Recycled aggregate is an aggregate which is obtained after demolishing of an existing building, which is a waste causing economical in balance and which if put into use can not only decrease the construction cost but also make this waste into a better use. In the present study, for a M35 grade of concrete, Vermiculite (0, 5%, 10% and 15% of weight of sand) and granite powder (fixed at 10% of weight of sand used) is used to replace sand partially and in the place of normal coarse aggregate, recycled aggregate is used which is 20 mm passing and 12 mm retained After preparation of Mix-Design(1:1.83:2.69 with w/c ratio of 0.38) the concrete cubes are casted to test for compressive strength after curing for 28 days, 56 days and 90 days. Forsec brand super plasticizer is used to take care of workability requirements. Durability test in the form of resistance to attack of sulphuric acid was conducted along with compressive strength. The test results were promising at 10% replacement levels of Vermiculite.

Kiran kumar narasimhan

Liposomes for drug delivery - liposomes

Liposomes are a novel drug delivery system (NDDS), they are vesicular structures consisting of bilalyers which form spontaneously when phospholipids are dispersed in water. They are microscopic vesicles in which an aqueous volume is entirely enclosed by a membrane composed of lipid bilayers. NDDS aims to deliver the drug at a rate directed by the needs of the body during the period of treatment and direct the place of action. Liposomes are colloidal spheres of cholesterol non-toxic surfactants, sphingolipids, glycolipids, long chain fatty acids and even membrane proteins and drug molecules or it is also called vesicular system. It differs in size, composition and charge and drug carrier loaded with variety of molecules such as small drug molecules, proteins, nucleotides or plasmids etc. Few drugs are formulated as liposomes to improve their therapeutic index. Hence a number of vesicular drug delivery systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes and pharmacosomes are developed. The focus of this chapter is to the various method of preparation, characterization of liposomes, advantages and applications, etc. Liposomes for Drug Delivery - liposomes

Kamal Singh Kamal singh

Analysis of poverty and poverty alleviation measures and information technology: the case of jordan

This study reviews indicators of poverty and the government policies and strategies to reduce and alleviate poverty in Jordan and investigate the effects of information technologies (ITC) on the poverty in Jordan, Population growth rate, GDP at current prices, consumer price index, and human development index in addition to percentage of population use internet, percentage of export and import of ITC of the total trade are used as dependent variables. Data from different resource is collected from 1999 in which the internet started in Jordan till 2018 on the abovementioned variables. The results show that there are negative impacts of the percentage of population using internet on the poverty rate while there are positive effects of human development index and consumer price index on poverty

Iaeme

Content analysis of persuasive techniques used by pharmaceutical company representatives during promotional visits to doctors

Contact between pharmaceutical company representatives (PCRs) and medical practitioners is viewed by drug companies as a vital part of their marketing strategy. Studies show that PCRs employ persuasion disguised as information. Because PCRs are keenly involved in competitive marketing, they are more likely to use persuasion than information during their promotional visits. Information increases customer awareness of a particular product without influencing the preferences. Persuasive marketing directly influences a consumer’s brand preference. Positively influencing a prescriber’s attitude towards a product is essential for effective marketing since there is an association between attitude, intention and behaviour. Numerous studies find that pharmaceutical promotional interactions have an impact on physician’s perceptions and their prescribing practices. Yet, many of today's health professionals do not acknowledge their vulnerability to being misled by pharmaceutical marketing. This study demonstrate that Pharmaceutical promotion strategies do not differ greatly from those of other types of marketing, PCRs more likely to use persuasion to highlight the perceived difference of their particular brand. Persuasion often has a subtle influence that is not easy to detect and physicians should receive education regarding the drug promotion techniques used by pharmaceutical companies. Persuasion often has a subtle influence that is not easy to detect. Overconfidence is a major risk factor for being misled. This analysis highlights some critical aspects of persuasive communication by PCRs in promotional visits. It will help prescribers to interpret, evaluate and respond appropriately to manipulative behaviour by PCRs.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Mediterranean journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

Estimation of snr based adaptive-feedback equalizers for feedback control in hearing aids

Despite the evolution of modern technology, the users of hearing aids do not realize the persistence of feedback, while wearing the device until the condition becomes worse. The feedback cancellation algorithms, instead of cancelling the acoustic feedback, limits speech intelligibility. The paper presents a novel method for estimation of SNR based adaptive-feedback equalizers (SBAFE) algorithm to develop an optimized hearing aid for the feedback less sound transmission and achieving better speech discrimination. The data gathered for the optimization is visualized and compared with the traditional technology, which provides the subjective and objective quality of the hearing aids.

Jayanthi G Jayanthi g

Exploring the academic landscape: a critical analysis and review of the nepal journal of multidisciplinary research [njmr]

The establishment of the Nepal Journal of Multidisciplinary Research (NJMR) aimed to facilitate the exchange of knowledge among global scholars. Consequently, a thorough examination of NJMR's trajectory toward its objectives became essential. This investigation, conducted through systematic review methods, durations five years and encompasses 164 articles, including one special issue. Throughout this period, the journal exhibited growing interest across diverse areas of study, although a notable observation was the limited citations in many articles. The majority of contributions came from scholars in Nepal and India, covering a wide range of subjects. Notably, Tribhuvan University emerged as a leading contributor, particularly in the areas of software development and cultural practices, which received more citations. The predominant focus of the journal was on quantitative research; however, there is a recognized need to acknowledge and emphasize the value of qualitative findings. To enhance its academic standing, the Nepal Journal of Multidisciplinary Research [NJMR] could benefit from increased global awareness, engagement, and a more balanced approach to research methods. Gaining wider acceptance may involve fostering international collaboration and ensuring a more comprehensive representation of qualitative research within its publications. By addressing these aspects, the journal has the potential to elevate its academic impact and contribute more substantially to the global scholarly community.

Dr Dasarath Neupane Dr dasarath neupane

Precision medicine: recent progress in cancer therapy

This review was aimed to describe a new approach of healthcare performance strategy based on individual genetic variants. Personalized medicine is a model for health care which is a combination of preventive, personalized, participatory and predictive measures. It is an approach for a better treatment by identifying the disease causing genomics makeup of an individual. This work features key advancements in the improvement of empowering advances that further the objective of customized and precision medication and the remaining difficulties that, when tended to, may produce phenomenal abilities in acknowledging genuinely individualized patient consideration. Customized treatment for patients determined to have strong tumors has brought about a few advances as of late. To improve a multi-drug approach ready to coordinate DNA and RNA adjustment, proteomics and metabolomics will be essential. The execution of translational examinations dependent on fluid biopsy and organoids or xenografts to assess molecular changes because of clonal weight produced because of the utilization of target specialists or tumor heterogeneity would help in the recognition of systems of opposition, proposing opportunities for novel mixes. The investigation of massive data in oncology can profit altogether from being engaged by artificial intelligence and machine learning strategies.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Mediterranean journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

Risk of pulmonary-reproductive dysfunctions, inflammation and oxidative dna damage in exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in cigarette smokers

Background: Exposure to cigarette smoke has been associated with pulmonary and reproductive dysfunctions; inflammatory response, oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in cigarette smoke have been implicated in the pathogenesis of these disorders. The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), a biomarker of inflammation and oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)), reproductive hormones (testosterone (TST), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)) cotinine and urinary PAH metabolite (1- hydroxypyrene (1-HOP)) were estimated in male active smokers. Methods: One hundred men aged 20-47 years, comprising 50 active male smokers and 50 non-smokers, were randomly recruited into this comparative cross-sectional study. The PEFR was measured using a peak flow meter, serum levels of cotinine, FSH, LH, TST, TNF-α, and urine 8-OHdG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and 1-HOP by high-performance liquid chromatography. Data analysis was done using a t-test and correlation analysis at p≤0.05. Results: Smokers had significantly higher cotinine (49.73±31.76 versus 0.51±0.69 ng/ml, p≤0.001), 8-OHdG (16.34±12.10 versus 5.79±2.14 ng/ml, p≤0.001) and lower PEFR (309.20±56.05 versus 452.80±45.76 L/min, p≤0.001) and LH (5.75±2.06 versus 6.97±2.79 mIU/ml, p=0.015) compared to non-smokers. Duration of exposure to cigarette smoke correlated positively with cotinine (r=0.937, p≤0.001) and 1-HOP (r=0.813, p≤0.001) while cotinine correlated positively with 1-HOP (r=0.863, p≤0.001) only in smokers. Conclusion: Reduced lung function and luteinizing hormone and concurrent increase in oxidative DNA damage associated with exposure to cigarette smoke may suggest the involvement of PAH-induced DNA damage in the development of pulmonary and reproductive impairment in smokers.

Eworo Raymond Eworo raymond

Using interactive web-based animations to help students to find the optimal algorithms of river crossing puzzles

To acquire algorithmic thinking is a long process that has a few steps. The most basic level of algorithmic thinking is when students recognize the algorithms and various problems that can be solved with algorithms. At the second level, students can execute the given algorithms. At the third level of algorithmic thinking, students can analyze the algorithms, they recognize which steps are executed in sequences, conditions or loops. At the fourth level, students can create their algorithms. The last three levels of algorithmic thinking are: the implementation of the algorithms in a programming language, modifying and improving the algorithms, and creating complex algorithms. In preliminary research related to algorithmic thinking, we investigated how first-year undergraduate computer science students of J. Selye University can solve problems associated with the second, third and fourth level of algorithmic thinking. We chose these levels because these levels do not require to know any programming language. The tasks that students had to solve were for example: what will be the route of a robot when it executes the given instructions, how many times we need to cross a river to carry everyone to another river-bank. To solve these types of tasks requires only good algorithmic thinking. The results showed that students reached 81.4% average score on tasks related to the execution of given algorithms, 72.3% average score on tasks where they needed to analyze algorithms, and 66.2% average score on tasks where students needed to create algorithms. The latter type of tasks were mostly various river-crossing problems. Even though, that students reached a 66.2% average score on these tasks, if we had accepted only solutions with the optimal algorithms (minimal number of river crossing), they would have reached only a 21.3% average score, which is very low. To help students find the optimal algorithms of river crossing puzzles, we developed several interactive web-based animations. In the last part of this paper, we describe these animations, we summarize how they were created and how they can be used in education. Finally, we conclude and briefly mention our plans related to our future research.

Ladislav Végh Ladislav végh

Insecurity in a democratic state: towards reformulating roles of traditional institutions for enhanced national security in nigeria

The main focus of this paper is to examine the relationship between insecurity in Nigeria and how traditional institutions such as traditional monarchical system can be used as veritable tool to curtail increasing insecurity in a democratic system such as Nigeria. The pervasive nature of insecurity,though,not an entirely Nigerian problem, has been trending of late, andhence, become a huge source of worry for scholars,experts,public commentators and the international community at large.The menace of insecurity finds expression in wanton killings, kidnapping,farmers-herders conflicts, rape, communal clashes, militia activities, ethnic secessionist agitations and many other strands of violence. The multiplier effects of all these challenges have been very devastating in terms of the recent attacks witnessed all over the country in recent times. This study observes that most of the people engaged in some of these atrocities might be well known to traditional rulers in the communities where they come from. This is because traditional rulers are closest to the people. The work is an exploratory study and relies solely on literature and works of experts in the broader field of security studies for investigation. The paper sums up a conclusion and recommends that there is a need for the adoption of both vertical and horizontal approaches to tackle the menace of insecurity, particularly, using the instrumentality of traditional institutions as a point of departure.

Canice Erunke Canice erunke

Ataque de nervios: the impact of sociodemographic, health history, and psychological dimensions on puerto rican adults

Introduction Ataque de nervios (ADN) is a cultural syndrome prevalent in Puerto Ricans characterized as an episode of intense emotional upset due to overwhelming stress. Methods The Ataque de Nervios Questionnaire , developed at the Center for the Study and Treatment for Fear and Anxiety (CETMA), served as the diagnostic tool for this retrospective secondary data analysis. We evaluated three models regarding ADN’s function as a marker of (1) sociodemographic vulnerability, (2) health history risk, and (3) psychological vulnerability. This last model was subdivided to assess the scores of screening tests regarding anxiety (Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), affect (Beck Depression Inventory, Emotional Dysregulation Scale, Positive and Negative Affective Schedule), personality (NEO Five-Factor Inventory), and trauma (considering the responses to the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Life Event Checklist). Results Our study sample had a total of 121 Puerto Rican adult patients from CETMA out of which 75% had ADN. We differentiated subjects according to their ADN status with t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests and evaluated our models using logistic regressions. People with ADN showed more anxiety, depressive symptoms, emotional dysregulation, and negative affect than those without ADN. They also revealed lower positive affect and agreeableness. Highly extraverted but minimally agreeable personalities related to ADN. Living with a partner and being employed were risk factors for ADN. Having higher educational levels showed the strongest effect size: it greatly reduced the odds of an ataque . Discussion These characteristics suggest a distinct profile of ADN seen in employed, educated, adult Puerto Ricans living on the Island experiencing anxiety. Our study provides clinical tools to comprehend our patients’ ADN experience, enriching our practice as culturally competent health providers.

Alisha M Subervi Vázquez Alisha m subervi vázquez

Exploration of drug-drug interaction in prescriptions of libyan practitioners in community pharmacies

The drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are actions or events that occur when two or more drugs administered together, may cause a clinical significance or not. There are certain factors that may affect the severity of DDIs such as age, gender, number of drugs prescribed, and physician specialists. This study aims to answer: Is there DDI in Libyan community pharmacies? In addition, to explore the factors that might be affecting DDI. Drug Interactions Checkers are used. 200 prescriptions were collected randomly from two different areas ( high and low income),100 from each one and were used to investigate the DDIs by using two different sources (Drugs.com and BNF platforms), bearing in mind, age, gender, prescribers’ specialty, and drug number (prescription size). A personal interview questionnaire with pharmacists for investigate a source of DDI knowledge was considered. The correlation test was used to analysis the findings. The randomly selected sample has 316 drug combinations. The study has revealed a minimum of three drugs (46.0%). In general, Drugs.com was the richer source of DDI than BNF (66.5% and 34.5%, respectively). It is found that 66.5% (67.0% of this is moderate DDI) of these combinations have DDI by Drugs.com. A significant correlation between DDI and gender (male > female, p = 0.035) was found. In a state of residential areas, the results are similar in both selected pharmacies. Most moderate DDIs (21.0% and 15.0%) are prescribed by orthopedics and psychiatrists, respectively. The observational interview questionnaire indicated that 100% of the participating pharmacists had no source of knowledge regarding DDI, 100% of 200 prescriptions had no chick it regarding DDI and 100% of found DDI is released to use by community pharmacies to patients. More than half of the prescribed drug combinations have DDIs (classified as moderate DDIs), and all of them are released for use by pharmacists.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Mediterranean journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

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