Objective: Pyrazolopyrimidines are heterocyclic molecules containing nitrogen as the main composition, and hence, they exhibit pharmacological efficacy. They are analogs of purines so that possessing wide applications in the field of medicinal chemistry. The main objective of this study is to synthesize different derivatives of pyrazole-pyrimidine classes by adopting simple methodology as well as by employing green chemistry. The purpose of the synthesis of these molecules is to study the antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. Methods: After literature studies, it makes us to involve in the research of synthetic organic chemistry, especially to synthesize new compounds of pyrazolopyrimidines. We are reported solvent-free synthesis of pyrazolo [3,4-d]-pyrimidine-thiones through ethyl acetoacetate, hydrazine hydrate, thiourea, and different benzaldehydes. An ionic liquid 2-methyl-imidazolium-oxalate catalyzed the reactions under ultrasonication bath. Both conventional and ultrasonic methods were employed and comparison studies have been made. It was found that ultrasonic method completed the reaction quicker than the conventional method. All the synthesized compounds were confirmed their structures by 1 HNMR, Fourier transform infrared, 13C-NMR, and elemental analysis spectra. The compounds were tested for in vitro anticancer activity against EAC cell lines. Most compounds revealed significant anticancer activity relative to doxorubicin as a positive control with inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. Results: Ultrasonication method is a simple method under which all the reactions were completed at faster time (<7 min) compared to the convention method. Among eight molecules, 8a and 8d completed the reactions at a faster rate. We reported IC50 values of all the molecules, in which 8e and 8g were exhibited excellent potency against EAC cell lines at different concentrations .
The use of performance feedback in the workplace has gained popularity over the years, yet school heads have been challenged in providing it to teachers. In the initial interview, they shared that evaluation results can impact teachers’ motivation, and that feedback should be done carefully. However, they failed to clearly articulate a specific mechanism that had been applied in this vital role. Also, no studies have provided clear detail on the feedback mechanism used by school heads in the past. For this reason, a study explored the feedback mechanisms employed by school heads in conveying the performance evaluation results to teachers. This study employed a narrative inquiry, and interviews were conducted with five school heads and five teachers who were chosen purposively for this research. Responses were recorded using a voice recorder. These responses were transcribed and analyzed using thematic narrative analysis. Based on transcripts, the study identified six emergent themes, such as conversational (one-on-one), relational, reflective, technical, reinforcing, and properly situated mechanisms in conveying performance evaluation results to teachers. Thus, a new feedback mechanism framework was developed.
This research will discuss the new destination of Toraja coffee as a tourism development strategy. Questions that will be answered is what is the attraction of Toraja coffee tourism as a new tourist destination. Methods of research conducted are field observation and interviews with coffee stakeholders as an informant and foreign tourists as respondents. The results of this study concluded that the appeal of Toraja coffee as a tourism destination is Toraja coffee has characteristic (taste) differently based on the planting area Toraja coffee. There are 15 names of coffee products based on the region and the name of Toraja coffee products taken from the region. E.g. coffee Toraja Sapan, derived from the Sapan area, and coffee Sesean derived from the village of Sesean. Perception of foreign tourists to Toraja coffee is that the taste of Toraja coffee is different based on the height of the coffee planting area to be a tourism identity Toraja Agritourism.
A focus group is an investigative tool for social research based on a structured and focused discussion with a small group of people, run by a facilitator (moderator) to generate qualitative data through a set of open-ended questions. The focus group technique is a qualitative research methodology popularly used in social research in a wide range of sectors. A researcher uses a set of open-ended questions on a specific topic to generate qualitative data. The focus group is an efficient way of gathering data about particular opinions or attitudes by covering a large number of people in the same group. This entry explores the methodology and processes of focus groups as well as the analysis of data from focus group research.
This study examined work-life integration and female lecturers’ tasks performance in government-owned higher educational institutions in Imo state. The correlational research design was adopted for the study. Two research questions were answered while two hypotheses were tested. The population of the study comprised 1292 female lecturers in government-owned higher educational institutions in Imo State. The sample size of the study was determined using Taro Yamane formula. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used to draw 406 respondents from the strata. Two sets of instruments titled; Female Lecturers’ Work-Life Integration Questionnaire (FLWLIQ) and Female Lecturers’ Task Performance Questionnaire (FLTPQ) were used for data collection. Face and content validities were ensured by experts including the researcher’s supervisor. The reliability coefficient of the FLWLIQ and FLTPQ was calculated to be 0.97 and 0.95 with the help of Cronbach Alpha. Multiple and simple regressions were used to answer the research questions. ANOVA associated with multiple regression and t-test associated with simple regression were used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. It was found that self-management skills and effective communication system predict female lecturers’ tasks performance by 54% in government-owned higher educational institutions in Imo state. Based on the findings, it was concluded that work-life integration is positively and moderately significant to female lecturers’ tasks performance in higher educational institutions in Imo state. It was therefore recommended among others that; management of tertiary institutions in Imo state should consider the establishment of constructive outlets for female lecturers to vent any form of inconveniences that is inimical to their job functioning so as to reduce tension. Also, management in each of the institutions should communicate staff duties in an effective manner by setting up active communication channels in each faculty.
Considering the site (habitat) specific variations in the metabolic activities in the freshwater bivalves, we reported here the changes in the rate of oxygen consumption, rate of ammonia excretion and O: N ratio in the freshwater bivalve mollusc, Lamellidens marginalis (Lamark) from lotic and lentic water habitats on April-May during summer season. The adult freshwater bivalves, Lamellidens marginalis (82-84 mm shell length) from lotic and lentic water near Jayakwadi dam on Godavari river was selected for determination of rate of oxygen consumption, rate of ammonia excretion and O: N ratio. The adult bivalves from lotic water habitat showed high rate of oxygen consumption and low rate of ammonia excretion. The O: N ratio showed higher values in bivalves collected from lotic water than lentic water during summer season. The results of study are discussed in the light of possible physiological processes in freshwater bivalve molluscs.
Crude methanol extracts of the leaves of Adenanthera pavonina L., Peltoforum roxburghii L, Prosopis cineraria L., and Prosopis juliflora DC., were evaluated for anti-emetic activity. Emesis was induced by the oral administration of copper sulphate 50mg/kg body weight to male chicks of four days age. The anti-emetic activity was determined by calculating the mean decrease in number of retching in contrast with those of control. All extracts (150 mg / kg body weight orally) showed anti-emetic activity when compared with standard drug Chlorpromazine at the same dose. Among all the extracts, Prosopis juliflora showed the highest (73.64%) and Adenanthera pavonina showed the lowest (50.17%) anti-emetic activity
By January 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 has spread internationally to a pandemic that mainly targets the respiratory system. The relevant infectious disease has been identified as coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) by World Health Organization and declared as a global pandemic. In Libya, National Center for Disease Control reported the first case of coronavirus disease-2019 on 24th March, 2020. The authorities decided to close borders and activate designated treatment centers to deal with COVID-19 cases and contain the outbreak of SARS-COV-2. This study aimed to assess and evaluate the pharmaceutical situation of medications used in pharmacological management of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Tripoli, Libya. Three WHO availability indicators were selected to be studied and reported. A comprehensive list of medicines used in the management of hospitalized COVID-19 patients was constructed after reviewing and comparing seven national and international pharmacological management protocols and guidelines for hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This comparison revealed that nearly 50 medications are intended for use in COVID-19 inpatient pharmacological management. They all agreed about the use of three medications, representing one from each main class. This list was used to cross check their availability at the chosen designated COVID-19 treatment center. This study proved that local treatment center’s protocol is more in line with international guidelines than the national treatment guideline. The later was issued on March 2020. The Libyan National Essential Medicines’ List contained 25 out of 50 medications of the comprehensive list based on the last update in April 2019. This study recommends that national treatment guidelines and National Essential Medicines’ list require updating. Not all medications used in COVID-19 inpatient management were available in local treatment centers, although, the Emergency Management Department of Ministry of Health in Libya is responsible for the supply of the required medical supplies and medications to the COVID-19 treatment centers.
Tuberculosis is communicable disease which is common and often deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem in the world. The aim of this study is to assess prevalence and associated risk factors of pulmonary tuberculosis. Treatment and development of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were also considered. Drugs for Pulmonary tuberculosis confirmed cases used in calculating tuberculosis prevalence in Libya which is obtained from archive department of Abu Seta Hospital. Data obtained from 427 files during 2019 determine the incidence and epidemiology of tuberculosis in Libya. For a total of 427 confirmed cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, about 75.0% of the cases were male and most of the patients (55.0%) were within the age group of 20 - 40 years old. Of the study patients, 114 patients (26.7%) were viral infected and most of the viral infected cases were in the age group of 20 - 40 years and the majority of this age group patients (n = 41, 53.2%) were infected with HIV/HCV, while the least percentage in this group age were infected with HIV/HBsAg (01.3%). Among 427 cases, 73 cases (17.1%) were comorbid with other chronic diseases. Of the 73 cases, 54 cases (74.0%) were diabetes mellitus whereas only 1.4% of them had bronchial asthma, Parkinsonism and renal failure. The drug therapy of active tuberculosis disease needs combination chemotherapy to escape the selection of naturally occurring drug-resistant mutants. Amongst current anti tuberculosis drugs, the rifamycins hold the highest potential for shortening treatment and improving effects. Prevalence of smear positive tuberculosis and bacteriologically confirmed that a high rate of tuberculosis among unemployed population. This study reported that the highest incidence rate is found in people who are smokers.
Formulation of the least cost rations that provides the nutrient requirements of birds is an important goal in poultry production . The aim of the present study was to create an application in the Excel program for formulation of low-cost poultry diets that provide adequate nutritional requirements using linear programming based on the Solver function of the Excel program and composition of common feed ingredients used in poultry diets (yellow corn, wheat, soybean meal , barley, wheat bran, protein concentrate, limestone, table salt, di-calcium phosphate, vitamins and minerals premix ,and vegetable oil), if their default prices are 500, 450, 750, 350, 250,1750, 250, 100, 500, 4500,and 1500) Iraqi Dinar / kg, respectively. The results showed that the Solver function in - Excel can be used to solve linear programming models such as those used for formulation of least cost poultry rations. This Microsoft Excel application is ready to use and can be used to assist researchers and students in formulating poultry rations that provide the desired nutritional requirements of poultry at the lowest cost. Key words : Application
Women, who constitute the largest group of farmers and who have conserved and improved ago-biodiversity, often have no property rights to land. They also tend to be bypassed by development schemes related to biodiversity. Women’s universities, home science colleges and other educational institutions catering to women’s needs rarely include biodiversity as a field of study. Women can ensure sustainable development and biodiversity conservation/enhancement. Structural obstacles to the advancement of indigenous women need to be addressed, by facilitating and redefining of gender roles and relations in the family and society. Increased involvement of women in decision making structures can contribute to biodiversity: If women are left out of the planning and implementation of local initiatives, valuable input is lost. As well, there tends to be very unequal participation among women and men in official biodiversity initiatives. Given educational biases, cultural obstacles and gender stereotypes, women often find it difficult to enter into relevant professional fields and gain specific expertise. The challenge sustainable agriculture is the safeguarding of agro-biodiversity by paying greater attention to diverse and integrated agricultural systems, especially those managed by women that provide food and livelihood security
A mobile adhoc network is a Self-configuring network of mobile routers connected by wireless links. In the mobile adhoc network, each and every device moves independently in any direction so that there are frequent changes in the links. It is essential to learn the position of the neighbors because there is increase in location-aware services. So, there is a chance that the malicious nodes are easily abused the process. The significant problem in mobile networks is correctness of node locations and also it is primarily challenging in the presence of adversaries. So, the neighbor position verification protocol is used to a fully distributed, a lightweight NPV procedure which allows each node to obtain the locations advertised by its neighbors and asses their truthfulness. Further to extend neighbor position verification protocols in the proactive model that need to each node constantly verify the position of its neighbors. So, we introduce a technique called secure link state updating which provides secure proactive topology discovery that is multiply useful for the network operation. This technique is vigorous against individual attackers, it is capable to adjust its capacity between local and network-wide topology discovery, and also operating in networks of frequently changing topology and membership nodes. Experimental results show that the proposed system is high efficiency in terms of security when compared to the existing system.
Gender Bias is an ambivalent issue all over the world. Understanding the values of being a man on women by one another may solve many consequences in future. Gender Bias will be dismissed by empowering women in the society. Because of the Gender Bias particularly women are in despaired state. UNO and many organizations have taken many decisions and efforts to empower women which will reduce the impacts of Gender Bias. Even though women are empowered we didn’t get remarkable result yet. Even our society is ridicule get ride from traditional customs but women themselves are opponent for accepting new rules and liberations. Empowering women is a mandated one; it is not implemented properly empower must bring the equal rights to women.
In the modern world, Tuberculosis (TB) is regarded as a serious health issue with a high rate of mortality. TB can be cured completely by early diagnosis. For achieving this, one tool utilized is CXR (Chest X-rays) which is used to screen active TB. An enhanced deep learning (DL) model is implemented for automatic Tuberculosis detection. This work undergoes the phases like preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction, and optimized classification. Initially, the CXR image is preprocessed and segmented using AFCM (Adaptive Fuzzy C means) clustering. Then, feature extraction and several features are extracted. Finally, these features are given to the DL classifier Deep Belief Network (DBN). To improve the classification accuracy and to optimize the DBN, a metaheuristic optimization Adaptive Monarch butterfly optimization (AMBO) algorithm is used. Here, the Deep Belief Network with Adaptive Monarch butterfly optimization (DBN-AMBO) is used for enhancing the accuracy, reducing the error function, and optimizing weighting parameters. The overall implementation is carried out on the Python platform. The overall performance evaluations of the DBN-AMBO were carried out on MC and SC datasets and compared over the other approaches on the basis of certain metrics.
Menstruation is a normal physiological impact on each girl’s life. Menstruation is monthly uterine bleeding for 3-5 days after every 28 days from puberty till menopause. A change in mood, behaviour, appearance of some abnormal vague symptoms is often noticed in the second half of the cycle. Symptoms are severe enough to disturb the life cycle of a woman called premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The study aimed to assess the premenstrual symptoms and coping strategies among adolescent girls. The majority of the students suffered from premenstrual syndrome. Objective: to assess the premenstrual symptoms and coping strategies among adolescent girls. Methodology: A nonexperimental descriptive research design was adopted in this study. Non probability convenient sampling technique was used to select the sample size of 30 adolescent girls. The assessment of premenstrual symptoms and coping strategies was carried out using a self-reported Likert’s rating scale. Data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: Majority (93.3%) of the samples sometimes had physiological and psychological problems, 90% of them had behavioural symptoms. Majority (43.3%) of the samples always followed coping strategies and 16.7% of the samples sometimes followed coping strategies and 40% never followed any coping strategies. Conclusion: PMS was common among students at 18-24 years. The most common physical symptoms experienced by adolescent girls were headache, backache and lower abdominal pain. Adolescent girls used coping strategies as taking hot / cold drinks, do not express anger to others, and turn to study and forget things, hearing music and taking medications. Keywords: Premenstrual Symptoms, physiological, psychological & behavioural symptoms, Coping Strategies, Adolescent Girls.
Conservation of Biodiversity is an activity must carry out by all individuals in the world to share the benefits derived from biodiversity. It is a critical task to conduct the biodiversity census and conservation (Biodiversity C & C or Biodiversity C2). Throughout the world several Governament and Non-Governamental organizations work together as a unit to maintain our biodiversity in safe mode. India is a mega diverse country with rich biodiversity. The development of modern science and technologies have increased the value of biodiversity and associated traditional knowledge. To save valuable biodiversity and traditional knowledge of our country, National biodiversity board and State biodiversity board constantly involved in this approach and biodiversity law's support to conserve the living diversity.
The recent boom in Android mobile device usage has caused a shift in the information technology and has affected the way how information and data are stored, shared among the mobile users. The advent of social networking applications also demands the availability of resources that can be shared among the authentic users. This paper reviews and compares the available techniques and solutions for detecting Unexpected Permission Authorization to Mobile Apps. It is observed that malware for the android system is also growing significantly, current solutions for detecting malware on smartphones are still ineffective.
The purpose of this meta-methods study (i.e., involving the full[er] integration of multiple methods research approaches and mixed methods research approaches) was to examine challenges experienced by students at Stellenbosch University that hinder their ability successfully to learn online during the emergency remote teaching that began in April 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, 1,932 students completed an online questionnaire. Analyses of the open-ended responses via WordStat 8.0.29 topic modeling (i.e., crossover mixed analysis) led to the identification of seven (challenge) themes that categorised the students’ challenges. In turn, via a principal component analysis of the themes (i.e., crossover mixed analysis), these seven themes were collapsed into four dimensions (i.e., meta-themes). A latent class analysis (i.e., qualitizing) yielded seven profiles of students. Disaggregating the themes by demographic and location variables led to the identification of subgroups who are most at risk for experiencing each challenge type. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
In Libya, pharmacy education and practice have a similar pattern to medical education and practice. Both sectors of public and private pharmacy education and pharmacy practice still significantly unchanged for more than forty years. It is a traditional pharmacy style of education and practice with a limited change of education and practice. Now, there are more than ten public pharmacy colleges and more than five private colleges established in Libya for a population of seven millions. In addition, there are several intermediate pharmacy institutes which provide a middle degree in pharmacy practice with a very limited knowledge in pharmaceutical sciences and training. Practice of pharmacy in Libya is still a classical mode with only dispensing medicines directly in almost a nonprofessional way and an old fashion way. However, the situation is old and complicated that needs a great deal of attention from different health policymakers and authorities such as Ministry of High Education and Ministry of Health, National Pharmaceutical Union and Libyan Association for Pharmacists.
formulation and evaluation of herbal face pace pack