Pharmacy articles list

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

Study of temperature variation in human peripheral region during wound healing process due to plastic surgery

In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.

Manisha Jain

Metapuf: a challenge response pair generator

Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.

Abhishek Kumar

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

A comprehensive study of gorvara puta in preparation of rasa bhasma

Ayurvedic formulations are of three types, Herbal, Mineral and Herbo-Mineral. Of which, Herbomineral is prepared either by Khalweeya or by Bhasmeekarana procedures. The quality of Bhasma depends on the number of putas given. Rasa Bhasma is one such kind of a Herbo-mineral preparation which can be obtained by Puta procedure as described in texts of Rasa Shastra. Though there are different procedures mentioned for preparation of Rasa Bhasma, maarana done with Gorvara puta seems to be an apt way to obtain the final product. Puta is the generalised way of heat application used during the pharmaceutical procedures of Rasa dravyas, where the purified organic Metal/Mineral is converted completely into powder form which can be absorbed easily into the body without causing any ill effects. Different types of Puta have been explained for bhasmeekarana of different metals and minerals. Among them, certain putas have been mentioned where Mandaagni plays a crucial role in Maarana (Incineration). These Mandaagniputas are in use of preparing certain Bhasmas like ShilajitBhasma, HaratalaBhasma, GouripashanaBhasma, and PaaradaBhasma. As these drugs are having relatively low boiling and melting points when compared to other dravyas, and are easy to evaporate when exposed to high temperatures, they need a standardized quantum of heat by which they can be transformed into Bhasma. Gorvara puta is one such kind where agni plays a major role in the preparation of Bhasma. So, the present study A Comprehensive Study of Gorvara Puta in Preparation of Rasa Bhasmahas has been under taken.

Suri abhiram

A critical review on mode of action of ayurvedic formulations on jwara

Rasa aushadhis are known for their uniqueness in curing the diseases with a very low dosage. These formulations are divided into two types based on their mode of preparation i.e., Single drug and Compound drug formulations. Based on their origin, the drugs are divided into three types, Herbal, Mineral and Animal. Any of these two or three together is combined to make a compound formulation. Apart from these, the other major factor which is needed for a formulation is the Rasa Panchaka of a Drug. Many of the formulations are being prepared based on their availability, keeping their Rasa Panchaka and Samprapti vighatana in mind. These formulations are designed in such a way that two or more drugs will be having one common quality, or Opposite Qualities or an Antidote of a particular Vishadravya, which can help in curing the disease. So an attempt is made to Review Tribhuvanakeerti Rasa with its Probable mode of action.

Suri abhiram

Acute systemic toxicity of four mimosaceous plants leaves in mice

Nature provides drugs in the form of medicinal plants to cure all ailments of mankind with fewer side effects. These medicinal plants can cause some serious damaging effects on the vital organs of the body too; there is a need of toxicity studies to provide their safe use both in human and animals. The present study reports the acute systemic toxicity of methanolic extracts of leaves of Adenanthera pavonina L., Peltophorum roxburghii Deneger., Prosopis cineraria Druce and Prosopis juliflora DC., (Mimosaceae) in swiss albino mice to explore their suitable doses for pharmacological screening. Observations were made immediately and after 1/2, 1, 4, 24 and 48hours of intraperitoneal drug administration. Adenanthera pavonina extract at the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight is considered to be safe. Whereas remaining extracts of investigated plants are relatively safe at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight.

Dr. Salman Ahmed

In-silico drug design, synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of 2-azetidinone derivatives for antileukemic activity

2-Azetidinone shows biological activities like anti-bacterial, anti-microbial activity, anti-tubercular activity, and anti-cancer activity. 2-azetdinone derivatives were synthesized by simple procedures. The first step is synthesis of benzohydrazide through nucleophilic substitution reaction between methyl benzoate and hydrazine hydrate. The above formed compound is then treated with substituted aromatic aldehydes in the presence of catalytic amount of concentrated hydrochloric acid with stirring for one hour to give benzohydrazone which results in the formation of Schiff bases.Schiff bases undergone cyclisation in the presence of chloroacetylchloride and diethylenediamine by using ethanol as a solvent upon stirring for 4 hour’s yielded 2-azetidinone derivatives. The in-silico anti-leukemic activity was determined by using the computational tools i.e. “PASS Online”, “AutoDock4.2” and “ADMET” properties by online software’s. Among these six derivatives compounds (AZT-6) was shown more activity when compared with the other five compounds.

M. Yaswanth

Assessment of drug prescribing pattern and prescription errors in elderly patients

The rate of aging is rapidly increasing and the term of geriatric refers to offer a medical care to elderly people. Drug consumption study on geriatric population is a vital issue since this group is totally neglected in Libya. The aim of this study was to assess drug utilization pattern among elderly patients in terms of world health organization core prescribing indicators and to evaluate the treatment cost. A total of 106 prescriptions were randomly collected from different community pharmacies located in Tripoli during the summer 2019, and were evaluated (total number of prescribed drugs is 359) for their clinical efficacy and safety. The findings revealed that 60 drugs acting on GIT (16.7%), 50 antimicrobial drugs (13.9%), 31 antihypertensive drugs (8.6%) and 30 drugs for respiratory diseases (8.4%) were prescribed to patients who are 65 years old or more. With regard to disease pattern in the elderly Libyan patients, 27 drugs were prescribed for diabetes mellitus (7.5%), 24 drugs for cardiovascular drugs (6.7%) and 14 drugs for anti-hyperlipidemia (3.9%). According to the WHO core drug use indicator pattern, the average number of drugs prescribed per encounter was 3.3. Prescription by generic name was low (41.5%). Antibiotics were 36.8% while injections were 26.6%. Thus, this study suggest that geriatric medicine and rational drug use should strongly be implanted in medical schools and teaching hospitals. Besides, a drug pattern use of the Libyan community is urgently required to avoid drug prescribing errors.

Fathi M. Sherif

Mokhtar r. haman: a dedication to his memory

It is with more sorrow and tremendous sadness we remember the death of our colleague the Libyan pharmacist, professor Mokhtar Ramadan Haman, at his home in Tripoli, Libya after long-suffering from brain cancer. He died on 02, February 2017 and his immaculate corpse was buried on the following day at the Souk-Al-Ahad cemetery, Bin Ghashir Palace. Professor Haman, was born in Tripoli, Libya, on January 1, 1957. He obtained his Bachelor of Pharmaceutical Sciences in 1981 at the University of Tripoli and his Ph.D. in Pharmacognosy in 1989 at Cardiff University, UK.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Effect of ephedra altissima stems extract on behaviour in the mouse

Herbal products are being paid particular attention by people around the world since they are natural, effective, and without side effects. In modern medicine, some drugs prescribed to the patients are derived from medicinal plants. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the central nervous effects of methanol extract of Ephedra altissima stems, in Albino mice. Doses of 500, 1500, and 3000 mg/kg of the methanol extract were administered in sub-acute doses (three doses), intraperitoneally at 24, 5.0, and 1.0 hours before scoring. General locomotor behavior profile, antidepressant activity, and anxiolytic activity were studied. The results revealed that the methanol extract of Ephedra altissima at 500, 1500, and 3000 mg/kg produced central nervous system depression, a remarkable decrease in the immobility time (forced swimming maze test), no anxiolytic-like effect by using elevated plus-maze model of anxiety. These results suggest that methanol extract of Ephedra altissima exhibits a central depressant activity, antidepressant-like activity, and mild antipsychotic activity without anxiolytic-like effect in tested experimental animal models with the doses used. Therefore, it can be concluded that Ephedra altissima extract may have a central depression, antidepressant-like activity with no effect as anxiolytic-like mood.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

The potential of truffle bioactive compounds for benefitting human health

Over the last few years, Libyan scientists and researchers have investigated most of the native wild plants from various regions of Libya. Since tens of years, research groups from Libyan universities, especially at Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology Center, have assessed the native wild plants for their detailed biochemical and pharmacological active composition in order to identify their biologically active compounds with health and therapeutic benefits and economical values. Recent scientific reports stated that several wild Libyan plants carry various bioactive compounds which have a substantial role in treating certain human diseases such as diabetes mellitus, inflammations, microbial infections, cancer, etc

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Prescribing of antibiotics and anticoagulants for patients with covid-19 in libya

In addition to the ordinary pharmacists’ role in dispensing and ensuring safety and efficacy of drugs, pharmacy profession is also concerning with clinical services towards community through multidisciplinary approach. In this regard, the clinical pharmacy is an area of pharmacy that concerned with the science and practice of rational drug use in which clinical pharmacist provides patient care that optimizes medication therapy and promotes health, wellness and prevention of diseases. During the recent crises of COVID-19 pandemic, the health systems appeared to be weak worldwide. Health care professionals seem to have nothing to present to their COVID-19 infected patients as no effective medications are approved by the World Health Organization (WHO) yet. Moreover, physicians are worried about the secondary infection for COVID-19 patients, therefore, treatment protocols were designed and mostly applied for critical COVID-19 patients who have been hospitalized in Libya. WHO does not recommend antibiotic therapy or prophylaxis for patients with mild COVID-19 unless symptoms of a bacterial infection exist. This monograph will highlight the widespread use of antibiotics and anticoagulants for COVID-19 patients at Maetiga Hopital in Tripoli, Libya

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Integrating pharmaceutical care into public health

Nowadays, the pharmacy profession is moving toward a multidisciplinary approach. Besides the pharmacists’ role beyond dispensing and checking the safety, quality and efficacy of the delivered medications, pharmacists are currently using their clinical knowledge to serve the community through different disciplines including drug counseling, vaccination, screening, and drug therapy management

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Impact of an educational intervention for libyan patients with epilepsy: a trial study

Living with epilepsy, its unpredictable seizures, and its comorbid conditions present many challenges over the time. Continued educational efforts can play a key role in helping people learn to live with epilepsy and understand epileptic medications over the life span. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of pharmacist-initiated education on patients with epilepsy. Prospective and observational pilot study to evaluate the impact of educational interventions during February and March, 2019 was conducted. A total of seven patients with epilepsy was included in this study. They received ordinary consultation care in National Centre of Epilepsy at Ali Omar Askar Hospital in Tripoli, Libya. Knowledge assessment questionnaire was assessed initially and patients were subjected to pharmacist-initiated education and they have given follow up reporting card. A follow up for one month has continuously been done and final evaluation included: knowledge assessment questionnaire, adverse drug reactions and epileptic attacks reporting. All the patients completed the pre and post education questionnaire. There was no significant difference between the patients’ knowledge before and after interventional questionnaire except for only two patients which is statistically significant (P=0.03) and (P=0.02) whose knowledge was significantly enhanced by post education. Thus, there are a lot of opportunities and challenges for pharmacists to play a role in epileptic care and education as patients with epilepsy are not knowledgeable about their illness regardless of age, educational background or duration of epilepsy. This role must be highly enforced and implemented in patients with epilepsy.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

A screening of obsessive compulsive disorder in pharmacy students

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder that causes repeated unwanted thoughts or sensations, or do something over and over again. It is affecting all ages in the world. It is unusual for symptoms to begin after the age of 35 and half of people develop problems before 20. This making university students a target of OCD. This study investigates the prevalence of symptoms of OCD and identifies possible risk factors among pharmacy students of University of Tripoli, Libya. 80 pharmacy students registered in the final academic year 2019/2020 were enrolled in this study. All the participants were females ranging of 22 to 24 years old of a same environmental background. This study is based on a validated questionnaire for screening of OCD as mentioned by the American Psychiatric Association without modification. A total of 63 students have returned the questionnaire (response rate, 78.8%). The study shows that OCD symptom is relatively common among pharmacy students. The most common symptoms are losing something of importance (71%) and checking things over and over or repeat actions many times to be sure they are done properly (63%). Among OCD symptoms, the most common associated trigger factors were stress and phobia which representing 62% of the participated students. This study indicates that pharmacy students are at risk of being susceptible to getting OCD. OCD affects academic performance and quality of student life, therefore, a psychological and health services for university students should be implanted.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Assessment of drug prescribing pattern and prescription errors in elderly patients

The rate of aging is rapidly increasing and the term of geriatric refers to offer a medical care to elderly people. Drug consumption study on geriatric population is a vital issue since this group is totally neglected in Libya. The aim of this study was to assess drug utilization pattern among elderly patients in terms of world health organization core prescribing indicators and to evaluate the treatment cost. A total of 106 prescriptions were randomly collected from different community pharmacies located in Tripoli during the summer 2019, and were evaluated (total number of prescribed drugs is 359) for their clinical efficacy and safety. The findings revealed that 60 drugs acting on GIT (16.7%), 50 antimicrobial drugs (13.9%), 31 antihypertensive drugs (8.6%) and 30 drugs for respiratory diseases (8.4%) were prescribed to patients who are 65 years old or more. With regard to disease pattern in the elderly Libyan patients, 27 drugs were prescribed for diabetes mellitus (7.5%), 24 drugs for cardiovascular drugs (6.7%) and 14 drugs for anti-hyperlipidemia (3.9%). According to the WHO core drug use indicator pattern, the average number of drugs prescribed per encounter was 3.3. Prescription by generic name was low (41.5%). Antibiotics were 36.8% while injections were 26.6%. Thus, this study suggest that geriatric medicine and rational drug use should strongly be implanted in medical schools and teaching hospitals. Besides, a drug pattern use of the Libyan community is urgently required to avoid drug prescribing errors.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Clinical pharmacist in competition with medication errors in the neonatal intensive care unit

A medication error is any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate use of drugs or patient harm if it is not under the control of the health care professional. Despite the fact that healthcare professionals take the responsibility very seriously, it has been estimated that 250 000 Americans die annually due to medication errors. Although, estimates show that one in ten patients worldwide is affected by medication errors while receiving hospital care, the harm can be caused by a range of incidents or adverse events. The exact incidence of medication errors in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is unknown. In neonates especially premature infants, the immaturity of developing body systems affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs and therefore an exponential risk for medication errors is present. The risk of medication errors in children are much greater than adults.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

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