Now a day’s contribution of Electronic banking towards economic development plays a crucial role in developing countries like India. Banks are no longer restricted to traditional banking rather it is shifted to the virtual banking system. Customers are experiences more feasible in banking operations because of Information technology. The banks are adopting IT-enabled tools and techniques for banking operations which improve in offering quality service to the customers. In traditional banking customers has to visit bank branches to avail banking services. Now with the ATMs, Internet banking, Mobile banking and Information Technology-enabled services are replacing the traditional method of service. In the recent days banks are concentrating on value-based service through E-banking. The present study throws a light on the growth of Electronic banking and its product which are used in the banking sector.
Improper use of medicines may carry possible health dangers and more evidence continues to stand that adverse drug reactions to medicines are common but often preventable. Self-medication phenomena with over the counter medicines is common among people. It is regarded as essential issue of self-care. Over the counter medicines use such as analgesics among children and adolescents is continuously increasing in Libya. This constitutes an important public health concern. The aim of this study is to focus on adolescent's self-medication phenomena about the over the counter medicines that teens frequently used to treat minor and serious diseases. This work collected information throughout survey-comprised number of questions for the teenagers bought medicines from private pharmacies at two different secondary schools in Benghazi city, Libya, without prescription. The sample size was 120 students, 58 males and 62 females in age range of 15-18 years. Data collected from questionnaire were analyzed for pattern of medicine use. Male adolescents bought toothache and muscle-spasm medicines more frequently than female adolescents. On the other hand, female adolescents administered more over the counter medications monthly than males. The use of over the counter medicines has been found highly rated and exaggerated among secondary school teenagers. In conclusion, adolescents have to be educated regarding over the counter medicine use in Libya. The need for promoting the appropriate use of medicines healthcare system is an important issue. This can be achieved through an educational strategy involved different public sectors such as health and education authorities.
Penelitian ini dilatar belakangi oleh adanya permasalahan yang terjadi pada MIN Bangka Belitung Pontianak seperti guru kurang melibatkan siswa dalam materi pembelajaran, guru cenderung menyampaikan materi dengan menggunakan metode ceramah tanpa adanya variasi sehingga menyebabkan kejenuhan dalam belajar, guru kurang memahami dalam tentang memilih dan menentukan strategi cooperative learning tife jigsawyang tepat sehingga berdampak pada terciptanya proses pembelajara yang lebih baik. Penelitian bertujuan untukmengetahui: perencanaan, langkah-langkah, dan evaluasi dalam pembelajaran Materi Aqidah dengan Strategi Cooperative Tipe Jigsaw dalam pembelajaran Akidah Akhlak Materi Sikap pada guru di Kelas V MIN Bangka Belitung Pontianak Tahun Pelajaran 2017/2018. Hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa Perencanaan Strategi Cooperative Learning Tipe Jigsawdalam Pembelajaran Akidah Akhlak Pada Materi Akhlak Tercela di Kelas V MIN Bangka Belitung Pontianak dengan lebih baik dan siswa lebih aktif dalam proses pembelajaran; langkah-langkah strategi cooperative learning tipe jigsaw dalam materi sikap siswa di sekolahdi kelas V MIN dibagi menjadi 5 kelompok, setiap kelompok diksih materi pembelajaran, dan siswa mendiskusikan dengan materi tersebut; Pelaksanaan evaluasi proses dan hasil kegiatan pembelajaran yang menggunakan langkah strategi cooperative learning tipe jigsaw dalam materi sikap siswa di sekolahdi kelas V MIN Negeri Bangka Belitung Pontianak adalah menggunakan tes tertulis dan tes lisan juga mengunakan penilain proses dari observasi siswa saat proses pembelajaran atau setelah mata kuliah selesai.
Market trends indicate that natural health products are being used to maintain health as well as prevent and treat many medical conditions. A recent Canadian survey showed that 71% of the Canadian population have used a natural health product. Among these, many reports that they take natural health products on a daily basis. This review emphasizes on Canadian post-market surveillance system that apply to natural health products for human use. The public's perception is that the natural health products are all-natural, safe and effective, but there is still a wide variety of harms linked with these products. The post-market surveillance system is the monitoring window to observe and control the adverse effects of using natural health products. There are many activities involved in the post-surveillance to ensure the quality of the approved natural health products. Despite the fact that post-market surveillance plays a very important role in eliminating and/or reduce the risk of using natural health products, there are still some challenges and more work to be done to improve the outcome of the post-market surveillance of the natural health products.
Overall, disability refers to a physical or mental state that impairs an individual's ability to function in daily life. It suffices to say that disability is a medical-social issue that affects both the family and the nation. In a country like India, where girl children are frequently stigmatized as a burden on society, the condition of girl children with special needs is frequently subject to carelessness, lack of compassion, and illiteracy. Though the situation has improved slightly since the introduction of inclusive education, the situation is critical for tribal girl students with special needs. In a fragile socioeconomic environment, tribal girls are already vulnerable to high dropout rates, early marriage, and an ignorant attitude from family members, but the situation is pitiful for tribal girls with special needs. The tribal girl students with special needs suffer quadruple discrimination of being female, being disabled, being ST, and being socio-economically backward. Here, intervention through artificial intelligence (AI) and AI-assisted devices can be critical in overcoming the barriers encountered by tribal girl students with special needs in the process of inclusion and development
Abstract: This study was conducted on two groups of broiler , the first consists of 4 replicates of 10 birds and the second of 10 birds as each bird is a replicate in individual cages. The first group were reared on floor during the entire period ,while the second was reared in cages during the period from 2-7 weeks of age. All birds received the same ration with 2859 Kcal/ kg ME and 22% CP as a starter ration, 2995 Kcal/kg ME and 19.19% CP as a finisher ration. The results showed that cage birds had a significantly (P≤0.01) higher body weight , total and daily weight gain at all ages , significantly(P≤0.01) higher total and daily feed and protein consumption , at 2- 4 , 0-4 weeks , feed and protein conversion ratio at 4- 7, 0- 7 weeks. Also cage birds showed a significantly better growth rate at 2- 4 , 0- 7 weeks and less dressing percentage, higher wing percentage while other carcass parts did not differ significantly. The cage birds showed better economic efficiency by 27% comparing to floor birds.
Objective: This study was conducted to investigate traditional beliefs and practices of women regarding care of the mother and the infant during pregnancy, in childbirth, and in the postpartum period. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted at a public hospital in Istanbul. The data collected consisted of socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics, and responses to questions about some traditional customs regarding pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period. Results: In our research, some non-harmful cultural practices were found, such as the belief that to have a clever and beautiful baby the mother should eat fruit; that to have a healthy and peaceful pregnancy, the mother should not look upon ugly things; the mother should indulge her food cravings; and to have an easy birth, the mother should walk and focus on prayers. On the other hand, we also found beliefs that could be harmful, such as wiping the mouth of a baby with a date before breastfeeding, and practices believed to be protective that could cause harm, such as putting a knife under the baby’s bed, fastening a safety pin to the baby’s clothes, and for the mother and child to remain at home for 40 days. Conclusion: While non-harmful and beneficial practices related to maternal and infant health should be accepted and supported as a part of our cultural richness, practices that could be harmful should be prevented in pregnancy classes or with training upon hospital discharge
Pelvic inϑlammatory disease (Waram al-Rahim)is one of the most serious gynaecological infections of the upper female genital tract with the worldwide annual rate of 10-20/1000 women of reproductive age. The objective planned for the study was to evaluate the effect of Sharbat-e-Deenar in uncomplicated Pelvic Inϑlammatory Disease (uPID). A pre and post observational single group clinical study was carried out in the Department of IlmulQabalatwaAmrazeNiswan, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Hospital, Bengaluru. Diagnosed cases (n=30) of uPID were included in the study. Patients with complicated PID, history of antibiotic therapy within seven days of recruitment; delivery, abortion or gynecologic surgery within the last 30 days, systemic diseases, malignancies, pregnancy & lactation were excluded. Sharbate-Deenarconsists of Poste baikhekasniandTukhmekasni(Cichorium intybus Linn.), Gulesurkh (Rosa damascene mill.), Tukhmekasoos(CuscutarelexaRoxb.) and Rewandchini (Rheum emodiWall. ex Meissn) were administered orally in a dose of 20 ml twice daily for 14 days. Outcome measures were 30-70% clinical improvement in Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score for lower abdominal pain and McCormack Pain Scale (McPS) score for abdominopelvic tenderness and White Blood Cells (WBCs) count <10 on saline microscopy of discharge. Data were analyzed using paired Student ‘t’ test, Wilcoxon Signed rank test and Paired Proportion test.Clinical improvement of 30-70% in McPS and VAS score was achieved in 96.7% (p<0.001**) and 93.3% (p<0.001**) patients respectively. WBCs count <10 on saline microscopy of discharge was achieved in 70% patients (p<0.001**).Sharbat-e-Deenarwas effective in improving the sign & symptoms of PID due to its anti-microbial, anti-inϑlammatory, antispasmodic and anti-oxidant properties. No adverse effect of the research drug was encountered during the study. Hence, Sharbat-e-Deenar serves as an effective alternative in patients with PID, proving the research hypothesis.
Apprenticeship is one way of learning by doing. The Student Apprenticeship Program (SAP) or Apprenticeship as referred to in this study is a curricular program of the Institute of Accounts, Business and Finance (IABF) of the Far Eastern University - Manila. It aims to enhance the preparation of the students for actual employment after college graduation. A study was conducted on the sixty-nine (69) Business Administration interns of a private university in Manila during the first semester of academic year 2017 - 2018. Performance Evaluation Forms were distributed to all the supervisors of host companies. Evaluation forms were personally monitored by the Apprentices Adviser which made it possible to collect a 100% response. A sort of quantitative analysis was used to analyze the information provided for in the evaluation forms. The purpose of this study is to assess the interns’ performances and skills as well as their strengths and weaknesses based upon the personal and direct observation by the supervisors of the various host companies. This study will also find the gap in the interns’ skills based upon the Institute expectation and observation by the supervisors. The study is limited to one time observation by supervisors of various host companies. This study is underpinned by sociocultural theory, cognitive apprentice theory, situated learning theory and the 21st Century Skills Framework.
Three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus fasiculatum, Glomus mossae and Acaulispora laevis) were used as bio-agents to manage black bundle disease of maize caused by C.acremonium. The results revealed that colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in root system of the host reduce the percentage of disease incidenceconsiderably.In the pots inoculated with G. fasiculatum no disease incidence (0.0%) was recorded whereas, in the pots inoculated with A. leavis and G. mossae 16.66 % of disease incidence was recorded and the pots treated with pathogen shows 66.66% of disease incidence compare to control. Among the three bio-agents, Glomus fasiculatumproved to be more effective in managing the disease followed by G.mossae and A. laevis. In addition, all the three AM fungi enhanced the plant growth when they are used alone as inoculum as compared to dual inoculation with the C. acremonium and overall control. This clearly suggests that, AM fungi if used, can serve dual purpose. It can be used as bio-control agent as it shows negative antagonistic interaction soil borne plant pathogens and used as growth promoter because of the ability to supply macro and micro nutrients to the host plants.
The purpose of this paper is to offer insights that can help researchers to link ontology, epistemology and research methodology. This paper outlines the links among ontology, epistemology and research methodology by exploring ontological, epistemological and methodological perspectives in the research. It discusses how ontological and epistemological issues influence research methodology by providing a clear understanding of different research methodologies based on ontology and epistemology. Furthermore, attention is given to research aspects such as the elements of the research process, research philosophy, research approach, research strategy, the choice of method, and research design
This case is designed to highlight the marketing strategies adopted by a new entrant in the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector. The importance of brand architecture in building brand relevance in this competitive environment and enhancing customer loyalty has been put forth as illustrated by the experts. The synchronization of branding strategies and marketing communications in terms of establishing a customer connect purely on the basis of nationalism, price, and natural preparations have been highlighted from the perspective of Patanjali’s growth strategy. The brand has been envied by all the big players of the sector for proving itself as the major disruptor being portrayed in terms of its voluminous sales and ever-rising revenues. This case on Patanjali offers an insight into the strategies followed by a new company to position the brand at the right time and acquire a substantial market share. It also highlights the facts that exceptional competitiveness in distribution strategies may not be the only determinant for effective management of distribution strategies, and the road ahead needs to be rightly sorted out. This case also tries to unlock the path that determines the success the brand Patanjali has achieved which otherwise took decades for Nestle, Proctor & Gamble, ITC, or Unilever to achieve.
Liposomes are a novel drug delivery system (NDDS), they are vesicular structures consisting of bilalyers which form spontaneously when phospholipids are dispersed in water. They are microscopic vesicles in which an aqueous volume is entirely enclosed by a membrane composed of lipid bilayers. NDDS aims to deliver the drug at a rate directed by the needs of the body during the period of treatment and direct the place of action. Liposomes are colloidal spheres of cholesterol non-toxic surfactants, sphingolipids, glycolipids, long chain fatty acids and even membrane proteins and drug molecules or it is also called vesicular system. It differs in size, composition and charge and drug carrier loaded with variety of molecules such as small drug molecules, proteins, nucleotides or plasmids etc. Few drugs are formulated as liposomes to improve their therapeutic index. Hence a number of vesicular drug delivery systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes and pharmacosomes are developed. The focus of this chapter is to the various method of preparation, characterization of liposomes, advantages and applications, etc. Liposomes for Drug Delivery - liposomes
Character education is an effort to foster and shape student character according to school culture. The research objective was to describe the process of cultivating character in students through school intracurricular and extracurricular activities. The research method with qualitative, data collection with interview, observation, and documentation. The results showed (1) character planting through intracurricular activities with (a) strengthening learning, namely character building in accordance with the theme or material, and (b) spiritual paradigm by inserting Islamic values ??in the learning process. (2) character planting through extracurricular activities with (a) scouts, namely forming leadership characters, being independent, solving problems, and loving nature, (b) leadership, forming leadership characters, responsibility, and making decisions, (c) painting, forming detailed, focused, creative characters , (d) martial art, forming tough, skilled characters, (e) reciting recitation, forming religious, moral, orderly characters, (f) child preachers, forming brave characters, positive thinking, art of communication, influencing others. Pendidikan karakter merupakan upaya membina dan membentuk karakter siswa sesuai dengan budaya sekolah. Tujuan penelitian untuk mendeskripsikan proses penanaman karakter siswa melalui kegiatan intrakurikuler dan ekstrakurikuler di sekolah. Metode penelitian dengan kualitatif, teknik pengumpulan data dengan wawancara, observasi, dan dokumentasi. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan: (1) Penanaman karakter melalui kegiatan intrakurikuler dengan cara (a) Penguatan pembelajaran yaitu pembentukan karakter yang sesuai dengan tema atau materi, dan (b) paradigma spriritual dengan menyisipkan nilai keislaman dalam proses pembelajaran. (2) Penanaman karakter melalui kegiatan ekstrakurikuler, (a) Pramuka yaitu membentuk karakter kepemimpinan, mandiri, memecahkan masalah, dan cinta alam, (b) Kepemimpinan, membentuk karakter kepemimpinan, tanggung jawab, dan membuat keputusan, (c) Melukis, membentuk karakter detail, fokus, kreatif, (d) Pencak silat, membentuk karakter tangguh, terampil, (e) Mengaji, membentuk karakter religious, akhlak, tertib, (f) Pendakwah cilik, membentuk karakter berani, berfikir positif, seni komunikasi, mempengaruhi orang lain.
This study aims to explore the impact of Employee Service Innovation Behavior (ESIB) on New Service Development (NSD) among hotels’ employees. A research model was proposed in which one hypothesis was developed. The empirical data were collected from employees who are working in four- and five-star hotels in Jordan. A total of 332 questionnaires were returned and the data were analyzed using a single regression to determine the relationship between ESIB and NSD. The results supported the proposed model that there is a significant relationship between ESIB and NSD, and it also found that service innovation performance is exited in the hotel industry. The theoretical and managerial implications were drawn based on the study findings, and recommendations for future researchers were made, and limitations and conclusions are discussed.
This study aims to determine the effect of communication, competence and work discipline on job satisfaction at PT. Tribahtera Srikandi. This research was conducted at PT. Tribahtera Srikandi lasted for 6 months, starting from January 2020 to June 2020. Sampling was taken in research using proportional random sampling method. The population in this study are all employees of factory workers in PT. Tribahtera Srikandi 155 people. The number of respondents in this study was established by using the statistics of the population, amounting to 112 people. The instruments used to collect data are questionnaires from communication, competence, work discipline and job satisfaction. The data analysis tool in this study is a multiple linear regression by carrying out a classic assumption test that is continued by testing the partial hypothesis or t test, the simultaneous hypothesis test or the F test, and the calculation of the coefficient of determination. The contribution of communication, competence and work discipline variables explained the variable of job satisfaction as big as 0.765 or 76.5%. The remaining 0.235 or 23.5% was influenced by other independent variables not examined in this study.
This study sets out to explore the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) necessary for Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation in hotels. It also aims to classify participating hotels into groups based on their TQM adoption by using cluster analysis. A quantitative survey method was applied. Data were collected from a sample of managers from four- and five-star hotels in Jordan, 170 questionnaires were distributed to managers and 104 usable questionnaires were returned. The findings revealed that TQM is existed and implemented in the hotel industry. The researcher then confirmed that four- and five-star hotels can be classified into two groups, namely, “high TQM adopters” and “low TQM adopters”.
This study examined work-life integration and female lecturers’ tasks performance in government-owned higher educational institutions in Imo state. The correlational research design was adopted for the study. Two research questions were answered while two hypotheses were tested. The population of the study comprised 1292 female lecturers in government-owned higher educational institutions in Imo State. The sample size of the study was determined using Taro Yamane formula. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used to draw 406 respondents from the strata. Two sets of instruments titled; Female Lecturers’ Work-Life Integration Questionnaire (FLWLIQ) and Female Lecturers’ Task Performance Questionnaire (FLTPQ) were used for data collection. Face and content validities were ensured by experts including the researcher’s supervisor. The reliability coefficient of the FLWLIQ and FLTPQ was calculated to be 0.97 and 0.95 with the help of Cronbach Alpha. Multiple and simple regressions were used to answer the research questions. ANOVA associated with multiple regression and t-test associated with simple regression were used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. It was found that self-management skills and effective communication system predict female lecturers’ tasks performance by 54% in government-owned higher educational institutions in Imo state. Based on the findings, it was concluded that work-life integration is positively and moderately significant to female lecturers’ tasks performance in higher educational institutions in Imo state. It was therefore recommended among others that; management of tertiary institutions in Imo state should consider the establishment of constructive outlets for female lecturers to vent any form of inconveniences that is inimical to their job functioning so as to reduce tension. Also, management in each of the institutions should communicate staff duties in an effective manner by setting up active communication channels in each faculty.
Nanomaterials have been widely used in many fields in the last decades, including electronics, biomedicine, cosmetics, food processing, buildings, and aeronautics. The application of these nanomaterials in the medical field could improve diagnosis, treatment, and prevention techniques. Graphene oxide (GO), an oxidized derivative of graphene, is currently used in biotechnology and medicine for cancer treatment, drug delivery, and cellular imaging. Also, GO is characterized by various physicochemical properties, including nanoscale size, high surface area, and electrical charge. However, the toxic effect of GO on living cells and organs is a limiting factor that limits its use in the medical field. Recently, numerous studies have evaluated the biocompatibility and toxicity of GO in vivo and in vitro. In general, the severity of this nanomaterial’s toxic effects varies according to the administration route, the dose to be administered, the method of GO synthesis, and its physicochemical properties. This review brings together studies on the method of synthesis and structure of GO, characterization techniques, and physicochemical properties. Also, we rely on the toxicity of GO in cellular models and biological systems. Moreover, we mention the general mechanism of its toxicity.
Crude methanol extracts of the leaves of Adenanthera pavonina L., Peltoforum roxburghii L, Prosopis cineraria L., and Prosopis juliflora DC., were evaluated for anti-emetic activity. Emesis was induced by the oral administration of copper sulphate 50mg/kg body weight to male chicks of four days age. The anti-emetic activity was determined by calculating the mean decrease in number of retching in contrast with those of control. All extracts (150 mg / kg body weight orally) showed anti-emetic activity when compared with standard drug Chlorpromazine at the same dose. Among all the extracts, Prosopis juliflora showed the highest (73.64%) and Adenanthera pavonina showed the lowest (50.17%) anti-emetic activity