Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are aerial systems controlled remotely or autonomously by astronauts. Massive advancements in electronics and information technology have prompted the popularity and growth of UAVs. As a result of the huge advances made in electronics and information technology, civilian tasks can now be accomplished with UAV in a more effective, efficient, and secure way. Known as a drone, UAVs are developed and operated using a variety of technologies such as machine learning, computer vision, artificial intelligence, and collision avoidance. Having become more affordable and accessible, drone technology has become more popular among civilians. Therefore, this technology is constantly evolving and can be used across a variety of fields. The application of drones makes a huge difference in the most demanding and complex industrial environments such as those in the mining industry, maritime, oil, gas, and seaports. The usage of drones is increasing among industrialists to improve and optimize processes, as well as to enhance operational efficiency in industrial process. This chapter discusses UAVs on a wide range of topics, including evolution and historical perspectives of UAV, taxonomy of UAV, significance of UAV to society and industry, and industrial and academic perspectives on UAV.
Background: Poverty and malnutrition are associated with the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Nutritional reintegration with anti-TB therapy may improve treatment success rate. Aim: To investigate the nutritional status of low-income pulmonary TB patients in relation to the different anti-TB treatment phases. Methods: Forty five pulmonary TB patients and 40 controls aged 19-54 years, receiving treatment at Infectious Disease Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria, between September 2018 and July 2019 were studied. Serum total protein, albumin, iron and vitamin A were determined by colorimetric and HPLC methods respectively. Height and weight were measured and BMI computed, and data analysed using Student’s t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson’s correlation at P<0 P=0.001).>0.05) respectively. Albumin and iron were significantly lower in CPAT-HIV compared with CPAT patients. Albumin correlated positively and significantly with iron (r=0.405, p=0.006) in TB patients. Conclusion: Tuberculosis is associated with decreased BMI, albumin, iron and vitamin A, and higher total protein, and globulin, suggesting that malnutrition may be associated with TB risk, poor treatment compliance and outcomes
COVID-19 is associate communicable disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. It's currently a virulent disease unfold moving several countries globally. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and practices of COVID-19 among general public at the selected setting, Chennai. The main objective was to assess the knowledge and practice on COVID-19, correlate the knowledge with practice on COVID-19, and associate the knowledge and practice on COVID-19 with the demographic variables among the public. A Quantitative non-experimental analysis style was used to assess the knowledge and practice of COVID-19. Sixty individuals were chosen through the non-probability convenience sampling technique. The findings of the analysis disclosed that the majority (40%) of the samples had a high level of knowledge and 43.3% of them had a good practice, 33.3% of them had a moderate level of knowledge and 30% of them had moderate practice, whereas 26.7% of them had a low level of knowledge and 26.7% of them had poor practice on COVID 19. Keywords:- COVID-19, Knowledge, Practice, Pandemic, General Public.
A web-based academic advising system was designed to facilitate more accurate advising sessions on campus, as well as provide a complete history of past advising sessions. Advisors may select which courses they wish a student to register in, up to several semesters into the future, as well as leave comments for the student and other campus staff. The system was designed and developed using Relational Data Model (RDM) and Data Flow Diagram (DFD) and was implemented using PHP and MySQL programming languages. The researchers have developed an interactive web-based information system that can help Nigerian universities to facilitate more accurate advising sessions on campus and make important decisions. The developed System can handle errors, updates and modification of data more efficiently and can be accessed anywhere and anytime than the manual methods of academic advising system. This paper describes an Advisement System designed to mitigate the issues of an out-of-the-box implementation in a Nigerian university to help improve retention and graduation. Successful implementation of this research study would enable the main objective of this system to assist Nigerian universities orientation camp in solving the problems associated with the manual method of the academic advising system
Experimental trials were conducted on the compatibility of urea 2% with insecticides of different groups viz., monocrotophos 36SL @ 500 ml/ha, cypermethrin 25EC @ 125 ml/ha, quinalphos 25EC @ 1000 ml/ha and novaluron 10EC @ 375 ml/ha against larval population of Helicoverpa armigera in the field conditions on chickpea cultivar “HC-1” during Rabi season 2011-12 and 2012-13 at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (Haryana). These insecticides were found compatible with urea. Minimum larval population of H. armigera was recorded in novaluron 10EC @ 375 ml/ha at 3, 7 and 10 days after spraying. Monocrotophos 36SL @ 500 ml/ha, quinalphos 25EC @ 1000 ml/ha and cypermethrin 25EC @ 125 ml/ha could not provide consistent results against H. armigera. The larval population, pod damage and incidence were statistically at par with insecticides and their combination. No phytotoxicity effect was observed on the leaves with urea application in combination with insecticides. Minimum per cent pod damage (7.3%), maximum grain yield (14.6 q/ha) and monetary returns (` 6265/ha) was realized from novaluron 10EC @ 375 ml/ha plus 2% urea as compared to other treatments.
Abstract __ Considering the size and relevance of coffee industry to the Ethiopian economy this work presents the design, prototype development, analytical and numerical simulation as well as experimental investigation on an active solar coffee dryer. The solar collector and dryer system configuration has been optimized for minimal pressure drop by incorporating guide vanes and minimizing flow separation tendency using numerical simulation on ANSYS. The effect of air mass flow rate on optimal depth of collector, temperature rise and pressure drop were characterized including the effect of variation in solar insolation using CFD approach. By comparing different dryer configurations based on pressure drop and air flow uniformity, a new dryer configuration prototype was developed. In addition, thermal performance of the solar air heater was evaluated experimentally at three different airflow rates on a collector with corrugated absorber plate and another collector with flat absorber plate. High collector outlet temperature and efficiency were observed in a collector with corrugated absorber plate. The effect of depth of grain, moisture content on wet basis, airflow rate and humidity of air were explored for parametric sensitivity vis-à-vis drying time. Within 5 hours, coffee bean dried from 29% moisture content to 12.3% on a clear sunny day and within 7hours from 19% moisture content to 11.1% on a partially overcast day. Average thermal efficiency of the dryer was found to be 50.5% for clear sunshine day and 36.9% for partial overcast day. A good agreement has been observed between the experimental results and the CFD temperature rise predicted output with a deviation of 7.5%. Analytically predicted drying time compared with experimentally measured drying time within a 12.9% deviation. The cost -to-benefit analysis with a comparative assessment on traditional mode of coffee drying has been done and the payback period is found to be 1.03 years with significant benefits.
During the last few years, the pharmacy profession has expand significantly in terms of professional services delivery and now has been recognized as an important profession in the multidisciplinary provision of health care. The paper highlights the current scenario The Pharmacy profession in health care system. Pharmacist is a backbone that strengthens to health care system. Different roles of Pharmacist in different sectors of pharmacy profession like Industrial, academic s, community health, clinical research, drug design and discovery, developing NDDS etc. In nutshell pharmacist play an integral part of health care system. “Physician gives medicine to the patients but life to medicine given by pharmacist”
Higher education institutions are expected to produce quality and competitive graduates for the job market and nation-building. In realizing this role, the Bukidnon State University needs to ensure that graduates may land a job-relevant and aligned with their education and training. With this, a tracer study was conducted to verify whether the three batches of graduates are employed and are employable. It ascertained their employability based on their work experience from graduation to the present job. It employed a cross-sectional method and data mining for the information of 326 graduates. The results revealed that the majority of graduates had jobs relevant to their education and training; yet, there was a significant difference in the employability of graduates across batches, except in terms of gender. Biological Science, Social Studies, and Math graduates were employable within the first six and twelve months compared to graduates from other curricula. It was claimed that the BukSU had prepared BSE graduates for employment. These results have implications for the strategic options in improving the programs. The study made some recommendations for future tracer initiatives.
Now a day’s contribution of Electronic banking towards economic development plays a crucial role in developing countries like India. Banks are no longer restricted to traditional banking rather it is shifted to the virtual banking system. Customers are experiences more feasible in banking operations because of Information technology. The banks are adopting IT-enabled tools and techniques for banking operations which improve in offering quality service to the customers. In traditional banking customers has to visit bank branches to avail banking services. Now with the ATMs, Internet banking, Mobile banking and Information Technology-enabled services are replacing the traditional method of service. In the recent days banks are concentrating on value-based service through E-banking. The present study throws a light on the growth of Electronic banking and its product which are used in the banking sector.
Abstract should be times new roman with 9 fount single spacing.The main focused of Watermarking is developing and i Image Recognition is the idea of simulating the visual functions of human brain which uses human eyes as the source of input to recognize and make decisions on the objects it sees. This became possible with the advent of cameras and advanced processing technologies. The idea is to copy the features exactly present in the pattern, that the brain uses to recognize images . The image in the real world are captured and pre-processed in the desired format and stored in large chunks of memories. This is to provide the recognition program to compare the new image taken with the ones that has been pre-processed and stored. The comparison is done at the pixel level of the image which is expressed in a matrix form. The image is compared with the data set stored at pixel level and the decisions are made recognizing the image. This picture recognition method becomes a smarter solution with the availability of more number of data sets. With large number of trail and errors the system will get familiar and intelligent providing best solution for computer and robot vision technologies.
Background: Prescribing patterns in systemic hypertension vary from place to place. Studies have shown that cost could be one of the factors responsible for non-adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. Nigerian pharmacoeconomics studies have not provided a general guide on cost-effective prescribing for hypertensive patients in the country. The aim of the study was to examine the prescribing patterns, do cost effectiveness and cost minimisation analyses of the commonly prescribed antihypertensives, and determine if cost is a major reason many of the hypertensive patients of the District Hospital are usually lost to follow up. Methods: 5267 adult (≥18 years) non-antenatal patients’ cards of 2016 were reviewed for hypertension. Examination of the prescriptions, cost-effectiveness and cost-minimisation analyses of the commonly prescribed antihypertensives were done. Results: 12.6% of the patients were hypertensive. 73% of these hypertensive patients were treated pharmacologically. 40.8% adhered to treatment. 73% of the adherent ones responded to treatment. Amlodipine was the most expensive prescribed antihypertensive (N22). Amiloride-hydrochlorothiazide with the largest cost effectiveness ratio (CER) (9) was the most cost effective of all the combinations. Lisinopril- hydrochlorothiazide (N17) was preferable to the triple combination of lisinopril-amlodipine-hydrochlorothiazide (N39), and amlodipine-hydrochlorothiazide (N32) in cost minimisation. Conclusions: Cost of drugs probably had played a significant role in non-adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients in the District Hospital in 2016, since moduretic with the largest CER (9) and nifedipine with the greatest BP reduction when combined with hydrochlorothiazide (56/22 mm Hg) were rarely prescribed.
Therapeutic nucleic acids demand specificity and accuracy in design as well as delivery strategies used in replacement or silencing of the target gene. Gene therapy is believed to be the therapy in which the root cause of the diseases can be treated at the molecular level. Generally gene therapy helps in the identification of the origin of the disorder instead of using drugs to diminish or control the symptoms. The application of nucleic acids to treat and control diseases is known as “gene therapy.” Gene therapy consists on the substitution or addition of a functional gene into the nucleus of a living cell, in order to treat a disease or repair a dysfunction, caused by this gene failure. This therapy is used to correct defective genes, which are responsible for genetic diseases. Thus, gene therapy can be used to prevent, treat or regulate hereditary or acquired disorders, by the production of therapeutic proteins. The gene therapy is mediated by the use of viral and non-viral vectors to transport foreign genes into somatic cells to restorative defective genes. This review focuses on viral vectors in detail.
This study examined the spatial distribution pattern of public lower basic schools for the implementation of lower basic education in Rivers State. One research question guided the study. The descriptive survey design was used. The population for the study was the 942 public lower basic schools in Rivers State. Stratified random sampling technique was used to draw the sample size of 289 schools. A handheld Global Positioning System receiver was the instrument used for the study. Nearest neighbour analysis was used to answer the research question. Findings revealed that the overall pattern of distribution of existing public lower basic schools in Rivers State is clustered. Specifically the distribution of schools in Degema and Akuku-Toru Local Government Areas is dispersed with Rn of 1.72 and 1.36 respectively. The pattern of distribution of Bonny, Opobo/Nkoro, Abua/Odual, Port Harcourt, Obio/Akpor and Ikwerre indicates a clustered pattern with Rn of 0.91, 0.83 0.84, 0.74, 0.72 and 0.24 respectively. The study therefore recommended among other things that the state governments should make policies that guide school mapping and ensure their strict compliance. Since school mapping is an integral aspect of micro-planning, every local government should be statutorily required to have a comprehensive school map of its area that should be updated at least every decade. The services of professional planners should be utilized by the Ministry of Education and should also ensure that modern mapping equipment are deployed for this very important exercise.
Community pharmacies not only act as sites of drug purchase but also as healthcare setting. The aim of this study is to examine the extent of public’s use of community pharmacy and their reasons of visiting to Sabha, South part of Libya. Thus, a descriptive, cross-sectional survey with self-administered questionnaire was developed and validated. Data was collected during 2019 by registered pharmacists using the self-designed prepared questionnaire for community pharmacies in Sebha. Of all 600 questionnaires were handed during 2020, 462 forms were returned (77%, response rate). The majority of the respondents reported they had visited the community pharmacies at least once in a month (n = 343, 74%). The highest reason of visiting reported by the respondents was dispensing their prescription medications (n = 304, 65%) while purchasing medication without prescriptions was accounted with n = 162, (35%). The highest rate of the respondents was given advice about antibiotic use (n = 224, 48%) followed by physical exercises (n = 178, 39%) and healthy eating (n = 173, 37%). The majority of the respondents preferred to visit community pharmacy over other healthcare centers because of minor health problems (n = 358, 77%). The major factors influence the consumers choose any particular pharmacy were the professionalism of pharmacy staff (n = 254, 55%) and the availability of the medical products (n = 221, 48%). The respondents incline to choose community pharmacy as a primary health center when they faced drug related problem (n = 248, 54%). In conclusion, the current study revealed that the majority of Libyan people are regular users of community pharmacies and various services and topics of advice have been given by their staff. However, shortage of professional pharmacists in community pharmacies can undermine the opportunity of given reliable pharmaceutical care from these communications.
Background: Gestational hypertension (GHTN) is defined as a new rise in blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mm Hg, presenting at 20 weeks gestation without significant proteinuria. Worldwide, 4.4%-15% of all pregnancies are complicated by HTN. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of GHTN among pregnant women in Enugu State, Southeast Nigeria with a view to improving and strengthening antenatal services in the State to help reduce the proportion of maternal mortality and fetal outcomes attributable to GHTN and reduce the overall prevalence of HTN in the country. Methods: Records of BP, biodata and laboratory investigations (urinalysis, full blood count) of women who attended antenatal clinics in six selected state hospitals (2006-2015) were examined. Data were analyzed as proportions, t-test, ANOVA and Pearson product moment correlations using Maxstat (version 3.60) statistical software. Results: The overall incidence of GHTN was 5.9% with annual fluctuations with peaks in 2010 and 2014. There were significant differences in incidence among the age groups (<20>35 years) (p<0 p=0.0016).>35 years) and GHTN (r=0.932, p=0.0069). Between parity and GHTN, there was also positive, strong and significant correlation (r=0.813, p=0.0491). Conclusions: With an incidence of GHTN at 5.9%, there is need to improve and sustain adequate antenatal services in order to help reduce the proportion of the country’s maternal mortality attributable to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.
In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that approximately 4.2 million premature deaths world wide were attributable to exposure to particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5). This study assessed the environmental burden of disease attributable to PM2.5 at the national level in Malaysia. We estimated the population-weighted exposure level (PWEL) of PM10 concentrations in Malaysia for 2000, 2008, and 2013 using aerosol optical density (AOD) data from publicly available remote sensing satellite data (MODIS Terra). The PWEL was then converted to PM2.5 using Malaysia's WHO ambient air conversion factor. We used AirQ+ 2.0 software to calculate all-cause (natural), ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer (LC), and acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) excess deaths from the National Burden of Disease data for 2000, 2008 and 2013. The averagePWELs for annual PM2.5 for 2000, 2008, and 2013 were 22 μg m-3, 18 μg m-3 and 24 μg m-3, respectively. Using the WHO 2005 Air Quality Guideline cut-off point of PM2.5 of 10 μg m-3, the estimated excess deaths for 2000, 2008, and 2013 from all-cause (natural) mortality were between 5893 and 9781 (95 % CI: 3347–12,791), COPD was between 164 and 957 (95 % CI: 95–1411), lung cancer was between 109 and 307 (95 % CI: 63–437), IHD was between 3 and 163 deaths, according to age groups (95 % CI: 2–394) and stroke was between 6 and 155 deaths, ac-cording to age groups (95 % CI: 3–261). An increase in estimated health endpoints was associated with increased estimated PWEL PM2.5 for 2013 compared to 2000 and 2008. Adhering the ambient PM2.5 level to the Malaysian AirQuality Standard IT-2 would reduce the national health endpoints mortality
Algae are used by human beings for food from ancient times, as they contain a wide range of elements. Using inexpensive, in-house bioassays for screening and monitoring of extracts where the aim of these bioassays is to provide a front-line screen that can be followed up by more specific and expensive bioassays. The phytochemical screening, assessment of toxicity and effects on growth parameters of Traticum sativum of ethanol and dichloromethane extracts of five macro-algal species (two green, two brown and one red) collected from Libyan coast were studied. The Brine shrimp lethality assay was conducted to determine the toxic effects of seaweed extracts on Artemia Salina nauplii larvae and this was to provide a front-line screen that can be backed up by specific and expensive bioassays once the active compounds have been isolated. The effect of seaweeds liquid fertilizer on growth parameters of Traticum sativum were examined using in vitro seed germination in petri dishes bioassay. Seed germination percentage, fresh and dry weight, shoots length and roots length were the parameters recorded in young seedlings post germination. Ethanolic and dichloromethane extracts of the five algae samples represented the presence of several chemical constituents. All extracts exhibited LC50 > 1000 μg per ml. In this study, all algal extracts are non-toxic according to Brine shrimp lethality assay so they may be considered as edible seaweeds. Different effects on growth parameters of Traticum sativum suggested the presence of micro-elements, macro-elements and different concentrations of plant growth hormones.
Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D is not restricted to the elderly and hospitalized population. Worldwide, the rate of prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has grown up rapidly in adults over the past decades. Among Libyan population including young students may has a high risk of vitamin D deficiency. The aims of this study were to examine vitamin D status among pharmacy students of Sebha University and to study the hematological profile as well as correlation of vitamin D deficiency with incidence of anemia among the students. This study was carried out on Pharmacy students from 13th January to 12th March, 2020. This is a cross-sectional study designed to determine vitamin D status among healthy young pharmacy students studying at the Sebha University. The blood samples were collected randomly from 62 pharmacy students to analysis complete blood count and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The concentration of hemoglobin on total student was 12.5 ± 1.9 g/dl which was normal according to the WHO level (12.0 g/dl). Out of total, 36 students (59.1%) were found to have normal hemoglobin concentration (13.7 ± 1.4 g/dl) and 26 students (40.9 %) were found to have low hemoglobin concentration (10.8 ± 1.1 g/dl). Other blood profile as HCT, MCV, MHC and MCHC where statistically significant lower but the counts of RBCs, WBC and platelets were not on anemic group comparing to normal group. The present study reported that majority of pharmacy students in male and female blood donors have low vitamin D levels which represent (87.0%). Out of the total participants (n = 54) who have low vitamin D (n = 49, 79.0%) were classified under vitamin D deficiency category while (n = 05, 08.0%) of students had vitamin D insufficiency. In conclusion, prevalence of hypovitaminosis D (low 25-hydroxyvitamin D) among the pharmacy students at Sebha University was highly occurrence with concomitant a high rate of prevalence of anemia. Thus, vitamin D deficiency at this age represents a public health problem that should be addressed.
Internet of Things (IoT) enhances the global connectivity to all the remote sensing devices. It enables the connectivity of communication and processing the real-time data that has been collected from an enormous number of connected sensing devices. There is an increase in the IoT technology that leads to various malicious attacks. It is more important to overcome the malicious attacks, mainly to stop attackers or intruders from taking all the control of devices. Ensuring the safety and accuracy of the sensing devices is a serious task. It is very much important to enabling the authenticity and integrity to obtain the safety of the devices. Dynamic tree chaining, Geometric star chaining and Onion encryption are the three solutions that has been proposed in this project for in order to enable authenticity and integrity with information hiding for secure communication. The simulation results are driven displays that the proposed system is very stable and much better than other existing solution in means of security, space and time.
In this summary, the ideas used by the sales management to enhance the effective Selling of items to clients are addressed in detail. Overall, the report focuses on sales management, describing how the Marks and Spencer organisation's sales can be enhanced through the adoption of appropriate strategies and approaches that would aid in improving sales in the face of increasing market competition. The company modifies ongoing sales management techniques as well as sales organisation factors in an order to promote and retain competitiveness, highlight the significance of the sales organisation, and the necessity of such modifications appears to be stronger in the contemporary business environment.