Medical Science articles list

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

Study of temperature variation in human peripheral region during wound healing process due to plastic surgery

In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.

Manisha Jain

Metapuf: a challenge response pair generator

Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.

Abhishek Kumar

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

1. critical study of guggulu kalpana with special reference of bhaishajya ratnavali

Bhaishajya kalpana is an art and science of preparing and dispencing medicine. Guggulu is a Niryasa (oily latex) achieved from small tree called Indian bedellium. Botanical name is commiphora mukul. Guggulu is an amorphous, translucent, solid adhesive, oleo-gum resin is produced by the process of gummosis from its plant. Many other Ayurvedic classics have mentioned various formulations of Guggulu for the treatment of various ailments. Bhashajya ratnawali followed various kalpana use for formuations. Guggulu kalpana is secondary formulations of bhaishajya kalpana. . Guggulu is one among the best binding agents and its used as single or compound drug in the form of pills, Formulations which contains Guggulu as main ingredient, they can be called as Guggulu kalpana. Here in Bhaishajya Ratnawali, Guggulu is used in yoga for both purposes, as a base and as well as medicament also.In bhaishajya Ratnavali Guggulu when modified into different formulations. It can also be used in many diseases along with different combinations of drugs with their anupana, Guggulu kalpana beneficial in treating many diseases. The Guggulu Kalpana is indicated in almost all the strotovikaras and also a number of research works have been proved the wide range of action of Guggulu .

Suri abhiram

1. critical study of guggulu kalpana with special reference of bhaishajya ratnavali

Bhaishajya kalpana is an art and science of preparing and dispencing medicine. Guggulu is a Niryasa (oily latex) achieved from small tree called Indian bedellium. Botanical name is commiphora mukul. Guggulu is an amorphous, translucent, solid adhesive, oleo-gum resin is produced by the process of gummosis from its plant. Many other Ayurvedic classics have mentioned various formulations of Guggulu for the treatment of various ailments. Bhashajya ratnawali followed various kalpana use for formuations. Guggulu kalpana is secondary formulations of bhaishajya kalpana. . Guggulu is one among the best binding agents and its used as single or compound drug in the form of pills, Formulations which contains Guggulu as main ingredient, they can be called as Guggulu kalpana. Here in Bhaishajya Ratnawali, Guggulu is used in yoga for both purposes, as a base and as well as medicament also.In bhaishajya Ratnavali Guggulu when modified into different formulations. It can also be used in many diseases along with different combinations of drugs with their anupana, Guggulu kalpana beneficial in treating many diseases. The Guggulu Kalpana is indicated in almost all the strotovikaras and also a number of research works have been proved the wide range of action of Guggulu .

Suri abhiram

Medicinal plants with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory-like activity

Inflammation is a natural aspect of the immune system's response. Pain, redness, heat or warmth, and swelling are the four major symptoms of inflammation. Plants can generate a vast range of phytochemical substances as secondary metabolites, all of which have anti-inflammatory properties. Herbal medicines are significant cures for the treatment of a variety of disorders around the world. Medicinal plants are made up of roughly 7500 species, with representatives from about 17,000 higher flowering plant species. Even when synthetic chemistry has advanced beyond expectations, the utilization of natural products in the production of medications utilized in modern medicine is unrivalled. Anti-inflammatory medicines can help to reduce tissue damage and improve patient comfort by interfering with the pathophysiology of inflammation. As a result of the huge number of species available for investigation, the effective creation of new naturally occurring anti-inflammatory medications relies mostly on a multidisciplinary approach to finding new compounds. Despite the fact that many review articles have been written in this area, the vast majority of them only looked at the subject from a regional perspective. Various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines have been proven to alleviate pain and inflammation by inhibiting the isoform of cyclooxygenase enzyme's digestion of arachidonic acid, hence lowering prostaglandin synthesis. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines come with a slew of negative side effects. Thus, there are, however, medicinal herbs that have anti-inflammatory therapeutic properties with a little or no negative side effects.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Nutritional background of low-income pulmonary tuberculosis patients on anti-tuberculosis therapy at infectious disease hospital, calabar, nigeria: a case-control study

Background: Poverty and malnutrition are associated with the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Nutritional reintegration with anti-TB therapy may improve treatment success rate. Aim: To investigate the nutritional status of low-income pulmonary TB patients in relation to the different anti-TB treatment phases. Methods: Forty five pulmonary TB patients and 40 controls aged 19-54 years, receiving treatment at Infectious Disease Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria, between September 2018 and July 2019 were studied. Serum total protein, albumin, iron and vitamin A were determined by colorimetric and HPLC methods respectively. Height and weight were measured and BMI computed, and data analysed using Student’s t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson’s correlation at P<0 P=0.001).>0.05) respectively. Albumin and iron were significantly lower in CPAT-HIV compared with CPAT patients. Albumin correlated positively and significantly with iron (r=0.405, p=0.006) in TB patients. Conclusion: Tuberculosis is associated with decreased BMI, albumin, iron and vitamin A, and higher total protein, and globulin, suggesting that malnutrition may be associated with TB risk, poor treatment compliance and outcomes

Eworo Raymond

Risk of pulmonary-reproductive dysfunctions, inflammation and oxidative dna damage in exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in cigarette smokers

Background: Exposure to cigarette smoke has been associated with pulmonary and reproductive dysfunctions; inflammatory response, oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in cigarette smoke have been implicated in the pathogenesis of these disorders. The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), a biomarker of inflammation and oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)), reproductive hormones (testosterone (TST), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)) cotinine and urinary PAH metabolite (1- hydroxypyrene (1-HOP)) were estimated in male active smokers. Methods: One hundred men aged 20-47 years, comprising 50 active male smokers and 50 non-smokers, were randomly recruited into this comparative cross-sectional study. The PEFR was measured using a peak flow meter, serum levels of cotinine, FSH, LH, TST, TNF-α, and urine 8-OHdG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and 1-HOP by high-performance liquid chromatography. Data analysis was done using a t-test and correlation analysis at p≤0.05. Results: Smokers had significantly higher cotinine (49.73±31.76 versus 0.51±0.69 ng/ml, p≤0.001), 8-OHdG (16.34±12.10 versus 5.79±2.14 ng/ml, p≤0.001) and lower PEFR (309.20±56.05 versus 452.80±45.76 L/min, p≤0.001) and LH (5.75±2.06 versus 6.97±2.79 mIU/ml, p=0.015) compared to non-smokers. Duration of exposure to cigarette smoke correlated positively with cotinine (r=0.937, p≤0.001) and 1-HOP (r=0.813, p≤0.001) while cotinine correlated positively with 1-HOP (r=0.863, p≤0.001) only in smokers. Conclusion: Reduced lung function and luteinizing hormone and concurrent increase in oxidative DNA damage associated with exposure to cigarette smoke may suggest the involvement of PAH-induced DNA damage in the development of pulmonary and reproductive impairment in smokers.

Eworo Raymond

Public perception and behavior on the disposal of unused and expired drugs

Evidence demonstrates that inappropriate drug disposal creates a significant risk to global environmental safety. Study participants' knowledge, attitude and practice regarding the disposal of unwanted and expired medications were assessed. The study was carried out at Sebha city, in southwestern Libya, from October 2021 to April 2022. A self-administered questionnaire designed explicitly to be completed by a respondent without an interviewer's assistance was used. Out of 650, only 500 completed questionnaires was returned. The majority of the respondents admitted they have at least one medication stored at home (71.6%). Keeping expired drugs were reported by 28.2% of the respondents compared with unused medications in their house (51.2%). Almost half of the respondents (47.4%) declared that their medication were taking from the private pharmacies. “I’ll need it in the future” (48.8%), "Medicines change" (37.2%) and "Symptoms improve and recover" (32.6%) were the top three explanations given by participants. The majority of drugs reported were antibiotics (41.0%). This is followed by antipyretic and analgesic drugs, which were used by 29.8% and 27.8% of respondents, respectively. 52.2% of the respondents agreed that disposing of medicines in the garbage is the most appropriate method. Concordantly, the majority of them indicated they discarded unused or expired medicines whether they were solid (82.6%), liquid (58.4%), or semisolid (79.6%). The majority of participants indicated they were aware of the negative impact of drug waste on the environment (80.6%). More than three quarters of the participants said they had never been given instructions on how to properly dispose of medications and 60.8% thought a medical team would be the best source of knowledge. Despite acknowledging being aware of the harmful effects on the environment, the majority of participants admitted to keeping unneeded pharmaceuticals in their homes and throwing them out in the trash. The government should support the pharmacists' role in educating the public about how to properly dispose of their medications and establish the Return Unwanted Medicines Project in order to raise awareness and create cost-effective medication waste management programs.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

A study of association between chronic liver disease and thyroid function tests at a tertiary care hospital in western uttar pradesh

ABSTRACT Background: One of the many functions of the liver is the synthesis of carrier proteins and hormone metabolism, and liver diseases have been linked to a variety of endocrine disorders. Aim:The study's goal was to look at the spectrum of chronic liver disease and the relationship between thyroid profile and severity of liver damage in a tertiary hospital. Methods and materials: The current study was a single-center, tertiary care hospital-based,case-control study that included 50 cases of liver cirrhosis/chronic liver disease and 50 age/sex matched healthy controls (chosen at random from relatives attending OPD with patients). Thyroid function tests were performed and results were compared between cases and controls.Result : This study included 50 cases of liver cirrhosis/chronic liver disease and 50 healthy controls.The mean age and gender of cases and controls were comparable, and the difference was not statistically significant. The majority of cases (76%) had alcoholic liver cirrhosis, with the remainder having non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis (16%) and chronic viral hepatitis (8%). As per Child-Pugh Score, the majority of cases (40%), followed by Child-Pugh C (32%) and Child-Pugh A (28%). In the current study, free T3, free T4, and TSH levels were compared between cases and controls, and abnormal values were found in cases, indicating a statistically significant difference. Serum thyroid profile abnormalities were observed as Child-Pugh Score Classes advanced, and the difference was statistically significant for free T3 and free T4. Conclusion: As compared to healthy subjects, patients with liver cirrhosis had abnormally high levels of circulating thyroid hormone, and severe abnormalitieswere linked to an advanced Child Pugh score. Derangement in thyroid profile is common in patients with cirrhosis of liver. Low free T3 and T4 levels are associated with more severe liver injury and may be used for prognostication in patients with cirrhosis of liver. Keywords: chronic liver disease; NAFLD, cirrhosis, Liver function tests; Free T3 and T4; TSH;

Tapas Tripathi