Sorting of human mesenchymal stem cells by applying optimally designed microfluidic chip filtration

Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) consist of heterogeneous subpopulations with different multipotent properties: small and large cells with high and low multipotency, respectively. Accordingly, sorting out a target subpopulation from the others is very important to increase the effectiveness of cell-based therapy. We performed flow-based sorting of hMSCs by using optimally designed microfluidic chips based on the hydrodynamic filtration (HDF) principle. The chip was designed with the parameters rigorously determined by the complete analysis of laminar flow for flow fraction and complicated networks of main and multi-branched channels for hMSCs sorting into three subpopulations: small (<25>40 μm) cells. By focusing with a proper ratio between main and side flows, cells migrate toward the sidewall due to a virtual boundary of fluid layers and enter the branch channels. This opens the possibility of sorting stem cells rapidly without damage. Over 86% recovery was achieved for each population of cells with complete purity in small cells, but the sorting efficiency of cells is slightly lower than that of rigid model particles, due to the effect of cell deformation. Finally, we confirmed that our method could successfully fractionate the three subpopulations of hMSCs by analyzing the surface marker expressions of cells from each outlet.

Myung-suk chun

Analysis of the effect of communication, competence and work discipline on job satisfaction at pt tribahtera srikandi

This study aims to determine the effect of communication, competence and work discipline on job satisfaction at PT. Tribahtera Srikandi. This research was conducted at PT. Tribahtera Srikandi lasted for 6 months, starting from January 2020 to June 2020. Sampling was taken in research using proportional random sampling method. The population in this study are all employees of factory workers in PT. Tribahtera Srikandi 155 people. The number of respondents in this study was established by using the statistics of the population, amounting to 112 people. The instruments used to collect data are questionnaires from communication, competence, work discipline and job satisfaction. The data analysis tool in this study is a multiple linear regression by carrying out a classic assumption test that is continued by testing the partial hypothesis or t test, the simultaneous hypothesis test or the F test, and the calculation of the coefficient of determination. The contribution of communication, competence and work discipline variables explained the variable of job satisfaction as big as 0.765 or 76.5%. The remaining 0.235 or 23.5% was influenced by other independent variables not examined in this study.

Lila Maria Kaban Lila maria kaban

A study to determine impact of life style, body mass index and dietary habits on blood pressure among nursing students at selected nursing college , vijayapur

A study to evaluate the influence of body mass index, life styles and dietary habits on blood pressure among the nursing students at selected nursing college of Vijayapur. The objective of the study is to assess relationship of life style factors, body mass index and dietary habits with blood pressure. A sample of 500 nursing students was included in the study. The study result showed there is significant association between body mass index, life style dietary habits and blood pressure

Shwetha hitnal Shwetha hitnal

Knowledge, attitude and practice of pharmacists and pharmacy assistants toward covid-19 outbreak in libya: an online based cross-sectional study

The COVID-19 was announced as pandemic by WHO on March 11th, 2020. Five days later, on March 16th, 2020 prevention measures to prevent the outbreaks had been taken by authorities in Libya. The health care institutes were working during the quarantine and until now. Pharmacists as health care professionals have a critical role in COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to access the levels of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists and pharmacy assistants toward COVID-19 in Libya. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in period from November, 2020 to January, 2021. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square to measure the differences and association within socio-demographic variables. Pearson correlation was used to measure the relationship between KAP of pharmacists. A total of 205 responses were received. The majority of respondents were from the eastern part of Libya. The percent of good knowledge score was 61.5%, the percent of adequate attitude score was 59% and the percent of sufficient practice score was 56.6%. There was an association between knowledge score and respondent’s professional and educational level with P=0.008 and P=0.028, respectively. There was an association between score of attitudes and working setup, professional level and educational level with p = 0.003, 0.011 and 0.002, respectively. There was also an association between practice score with regard to gender, age educational level and work place with P=0.004, P=0.017, P=0.002 and P=0.027, respectively. There was a positive relationship between knowledge and attitude (P>0.05). In conclusion, the KAP of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists and pharmacy assistants were low but acceptable. Therefore, KAP should be improved among pharmacists by implanting an effective health education programs in Libya.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Mediterranean journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

Kemampuan afektif calon guru sekolah dasar pada pembelajaran online di program studi pgsd universitas muhammadiyah pringsewu lampung

Learning is a conscious effort made by individuals to acquire various kinds of abilities (competencies), skills (skills), and attitudes (attitudes) through a series of learning processes that will ultimately result in behavioral changes in the individual. The learning process in schools tends to emphasize the achievement of changes in cognitive (intellectual) aspects which are carried out through various forms of approaches, strategies, and certain learning models. Learning systems that specifically develop affective abilities have received less attention, affective abilities are only used as a nurturing effect. This study aims to (1) find out whether online learning is able to bring out the affective abilities of prospective study program teachers (2) analyze the affective abilities of prospective teachers in online learning. The data used in this study is qualitative data. The technique used is a questionnaire. This questionnaire was given to respondents, namely students of PGSD teacher candidates at Muhammadiyah University of Pringsewu. The results of the study indicate that affective abilities can appear in online learning as evidenced by the results of the questionnaire that has been given to respondents. The indicators of affective ability in this study include attitudes, interests, self-concept, values, and morals, all of which are in the good range. This means that the results of students' affective abilities can be said to be valid or appear in online learning

EDUCARE: Journal of Primary Education Educare: journal of primary education

Modelling and analytical proofing of low energy temperature control using earth/ground water heat exchanger

For given condition of (temperature and humidity) of suction air, the delivery air condition depends on the system parameters (depth, radius, length and air mass flow rate), thermo physical properties of the surrounding earth (thermal conductivity and specific thermal capacity) and earth surface environment (ambient temperature, ambient humidity and solar irradiance)[1,3].Sensitivity analysis of system performance is essential for understanding the relative importance of different parameters of design of a optimum system [2,5]. For the steady state periodic input air condition and the performance of the system can be measured in terms of heating potential during the winter period and cooling potential during the summer period. Sensitivity of the system performance parameters (heating potential in winter and cooling potential in summer) to the changes in system parameters or thermo physical properties of the surrounding earth has been analysed and the result is present is in this paper.

Dr H Shaheen Dr h shaheen

Role of women in sustainable agriculture and biodiversity conservation

Women, who constitute the largest group of farmers and who have conserved and improved ago-biodiversity, often have no property rights to land. They also tend to be bypassed by development schemes related to biodiversity. Women’s universities, home science colleges and other educational institutions catering to women’s needs rarely include biodiversity as a field of study. Women can ensure sustainable development and biodiversity conservation/enhancement. Structural obstacles to the advancement of indigenous women need to be addressed, by facilitating and redefining of gender roles and relations in the family and society. Increased involvement of women in decision making structures can contribute to biodiversity: If women are left out of the planning and implementation of local initiatives, valuable input is lost. As well, there tends to be very unequal participation among women and men in official biodiversity initiatives. Given educational biases, cultural obstacles and gender stereotypes, women often find it difficult to enter into relevant professional fields and gain specific expertise. The challenge sustainable agriculture is the safeguarding of agro-biodiversity by paying greater attention to diverse and integrated agricultural systems, especially those managed by women that provide food and livelihood security

Shobha rani

Muatan nilai-nilai pendidikan karakter dalam teks bacaan pada buku siswa kelas iv tema indahnya kebersamaan

Penelitian ini adalah jenis penelitian deskriptif-kualitatif. Penelitian ini secara umum bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan muatan nilai-nilai karakter yang terdapat pada buku siswa kelas IV Tema Indahnya Kebersamaan. Sumber data penelitian adalah buku siswa kelas IV Tema Indahnya Kebersamaan. Data penelitian berupa nilai-nilai karakter yang terdapat pada buku siswa yaitu nilai sopan, nilai santun, nilai religius, nilai nasionalisme, nilai mandiri, nilai gotong royong, dan nilai integritas. Berdasarkan analisis yang telah dilakukan, jumlah nilai karakter yang ditemukan sebanyak 84. Jumlah tersebut merupakan akumulasi dari semua tema yang terdiri dari tiga subtema yaitu keberagaman budaya bangsaku, kebersamaan dalam keberagaman dan bersyukur atas keberagaman. Adapun rincian jumlah setiap karakter yaitu: (1) sopan 2; (2) santun 4; (3) religius 22; (4) nasionalisme 26; (5) mandiri 10; (6) gotong royong 19; dan (7) integritas 1. Berdasarkan hasil analisis muatan nilai-nilai karakter pada buku siswa kelas IV tema Indahnya Kebersamaan dapat disimpulkan bahwa buku siswa tema Indahnya Kebersamaan kelas IV SD/MI memuat 7 nilai karakter.

EDUCARE: Journal of Primary Education Educare: journal of primary education

Characteristics-centered cryptography with cloud revocation authority and its applications

Identity-based encryption (IBE) is a public key cryptosystem and eliminates the demands of public key infrastructure (PKI) and certificate administration in conventional public key settings. Because of the absence of PKI, the revocation drawback could be a crucial issue in IBE settings. Many rescindable IBE schemes are planned relating to this issue. Quite recently, by embedding associate outsourcing computation technique into IBE, Li et al. planned a rescindable IBE theme with a key-update cloud service supplier (KU-CSP). However, their theme has 2 shortcomings. One is that the computation and communication prices are above previous rescindable IBE schemes. The opposite disadvantage is lack of measurability within the sense that the KU-CSP should keep a secret worth for every user. Within the article, we have a tendency to propose a replacement rescindable IBE theme with a cloud revocation authority (CRA) to resolve the 2 shortcomings, namely, the performance is significantly improved and the CRA holds only a system secret for all the users. For security analysis, we demonstrate that the proposed scheme is semantically secure under the Decisional Bilinear Diffie-Hellman (DBDH) assumption. Finally, we have a tendency to extend the planned rescindable IBE theme to gift a CRA-aided authentication theme with period-limited privileges for managing an outsized range of varied cloud services.

Dr H Shaheen Dr h shaheen

Vitamin c and human diseases: an overview

Vitamin C is associated with history of the cause of the ancient hemorrhagic disease scurvy. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient with important antioxidant properties. It is required by the body for normal physiological function. The body cannot synthesize vitamin C, it is present in nature through foods and other natural sources and it exists as a nutritional food supplement. The antioxidant activity of vitamin C protects the body from free radical damage. Vitamin C is essential for the development and maintenance of connective tissues. It is used as therapeutic agent in many diseases and disorders. Vitamin C plays an important role in several metabolic functions, as the conversion of the amino acid, tryptophan, to the neurotransmitter, serotonin, and the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids. Vitamin C supplementation resulted in a significant increase in vitamin C levels in populations; its high intake is associated with positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Vitamin C protects the immune system, reduces the severity of allergic reactions and helps to fight infections. It has an important role in bone formation, wound healing and the maintenance of healthy gums. There is profound beneficial effect of vitamin C in respect to human diseases as cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes, neurodegenerative disease and many metal toxicities. Several vitamin C analogs have been produced as anticancer and antioxidant activity. Vitamin C is useful if it is used as adjuvant therapy for several chronic diseases. Thus, this review summarizes the importance of vitamin C in the body’s physiology and biochemistry, in addition, the different mechanisms that vitamin C is implicated to treat different acute and chronic diseases. Future exploration should pay attention to chronic disease management by vitamin C.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Mediterranean journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

Research capability of teachers: its correlates, determinants and implications for continuing professional development

Recently, research capability has received an overwhelming and remarkable interest among academics and practitioners. This is timely since the Department of Education had institutionalized research and encouraged teachers to engage in it to support evidence-based practice, decision-making, policy, and program development. On these premises, a study was carried out to assess the research capability of public teachers in Malaybalay City, determine its correlates and determinants. It utilized descriptive, correlational, and explanatory designs. It administered survey questionnaires to 92 participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results revealed that teachers were slightly capable of conducting research and having neutral attitudes toward it, motivated to write research, had a high level of difficulties in research processes, and moderately capable of action planning. They also show evidence of potential in mentoring. Further, mentoring and action planning skills, motivation to write research, attitudes toward research, and the number of studies completed by teachers were the correlates of their research capability at different magnitudes of the relationship. Notably, the research capability of teachers had a low, negative but significant relationship with their age and accumulated years of service. Thus, this capability deteriorates as they age and accumulate years of service. The motivation to write research, the number of studies completed, and age were the determinants of research capability. It was concluded that research capability can be determined and predicted by how motivated teachers are to write research, how productive they are in research, and how young they are when they engage in this rigorous endeavor. The study identified and recommended topics for continuing professional development.

Manuel Caingcoy Manuel caingcoy

Thrombolytic therapy versus primary percutaneous coronary intervention: role of clinical pharmacist

Cardiovascular drugs constitute one of the largest and most widely used among other diseases and cardiovascular drug market has largely been exploded . Although these drugs have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of various cardiac diseases. They are potent agents with potential for serious adverse effects, toxicity and drug interactions. Newer agents are considerably costly than older drugs and, therefore, cost-effective strategies must be developed. Thrombolytics are pharmacological agents come from bacterial origin as streptokinase and staphylokinase or from human origin as urokinase or t-PA. Thrombolytics are used to restore blood flow to infracted artery quickly. Only streptokinase, alteplase, reteplase and tenecteplase are approved by US-FDA for treatment of ST-elevation myocardial infraction (ST-EMI) [3]. This reopens blood vessels after their occlusion and prevents tissue necrosis. Although, the safe and effective use of each of these drugs requires a thorough understanding of appropriate patient selection, drug timing, dosing regimens and monitoring parameters. The greatest benefit to risk ratio for specific drugs is seen in certain subsets of patients the complexities of cardiovascular drug therapy illustrate the need for an in depth current knowledge of clinical trial evidence.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Mediterranean journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

Analysis of few crude compounds and separation of leaf pigments in few medicinal plant species

For utilization of a certain biomass it is necessary to know its chemical composition. The present study is qualitative crude chemical analyses of nutritional value (crude compounds) such as acidity, starch, carohydrates, iron and calcium etc. from stem extracts of Tinospora cardifolia, Centella asiatica, Clerodendrum inerme and leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum, Lawsonia inermis and Piper nigrum were conducted and also separate the pigments by TLC methods. The results revealed that Tinospora cardifolia, biomolecules like starch and carbohydrates were present and elements like iron and calcium were absent. In Centella asiatica indicated the absence of biomolecules like starch and carbohydrates and only one molecules, i.e., calcium is present and iron is absent. Similarly, in Clerodendrum inerme, biomolecules like starch were absent and carbohydrates were present. Both the elements iron and calcium were absent in Clerodendrum plant extracts. In Ocimum sanctum, starch is absent carbohydrates are present, iron and calcium are absent. In Lawsonia inermis, the results are similar to Ocimum sp. i.e., only carbohydrates are present remaining starch, iron and calcium are absent in Ocimum leaf extract. Interestingly, in Piper nigrum, all chemical compounds are totally absent. Related to pigments analysis highest distance travelled pigments are carotenoids (4.3 cm) in O. sanctum and highest numbers of pigments were founded in C. inerme with six pigments and least number of pigments was recorded in O. sanctum (four) and L. inermis (four). Meanwhile, the highest Rf value recorded in O. sanctum and P. nigrum with 0.97 (chlorophyll a). Among the seven pigments in six species carotenoids, chlorophyll a and xanthophylls are common to all species but chlorophyll b, lutein, anthocyanin and lawsonin are rare to occurs in these six species for example Lawsonin occur only in P. nigrum.

Veerabhadraswamy AL Veerabhadraswamy al

Incidence of agranulocytosis adverse effect of antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is treated with antipsychotic drugs and is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorders. The influence of antipsychotics on the cytokine systems may be responsible for their clinical efficacy in schizophrenia. Granulocytopenia and agranulocytosis are severe side effects of antipsychotic therapy. The objective of this study was to estimate incidence of drug-associated agranulocytosis in newly diagnosed schizophrenic patients in and to evaluate the risk factors and outcomes. Seven participants groups were designed. Healthy persons as control. Schizophrenic patients before treatment. Schizophrenic patients after one-month of treatment. Schizophrenic patients after two - month of treatment. Schizophrenic patients after three - month of treatment. Schizophrenic patients after chronic treatments. Schizophrenic patients one month after chronic treatment. This study included screening for the expression and function of circulating leukocyte granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, screening of patient's biochemistry and haematology picture. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor expression was decreased after antipsychotic treatment for one month and continued to decrease after two months' treatment. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor expression starts to increase after the two-month treatment and continues increasing to controls or newly diagnosed schizophrenics or after chronic treatment. Complete blood counts were not changed compared. Liver function showed a transient increase in serum alkaline phosphatase after one and two month of treatment. All other parameters were not changed. Kidney function showed that urea and creatinine levels were within the normal range during the different treatments. Concerning lipid profile, low density lipoproteins levels were increased after one month, two months of treatment and after chronic administration of the antipsychotic drugs. It is concluded that antipsychotic treatment produces a decrease in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor expression; the decrease reach the maximum effect after two months, then starts to increase back to normal levels. A transient increase in serum alkaline phosphatase in the first two months' treatment. Urea and creatinine levels and lipid profile were within normal range, except low density lipoproteins levels were increased during the two months treatment and after chronic administration of the antipsychotic drugs.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Mediterranean journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

A study on work life balance of teaching faculities working in arts and science colleges

Work life balance of employees has become an important issue which discusses mainly about their carrer development and the family care, it is necessary to know how the employees balance the demand for their profession and also their domestic compulsions. Professional life is hat the aim to grow and earn respect in the workplace and the society they live-in. Personal life means taking care of family, spouse, children, health and spending the available leisure time effectively. According to work foundation, the term work-life balance is about individuals having a measure of control over when, where and how they work, leading them to be able to enjoy an optimal quality of life. It is defined as establishing a successful balance between working obligations and personal commitments. Work – life balance for teaching professional has become a challenge in recent years. Teachers work load demands their time both in the institution and also extends to their home. Teaching professionals need to focus on soft skills and life skills so that they should aim at producing good citizens for the country.


Sexual experience of women after pelvic radiotherapy for cervical cancer

OBJECTIVE Study was designed to assess sexual experience, thoughts, and problems of women who have been treated with pelvic radiotherapy for cervical cancer. METHODS Seventeen sexually active patients who received minimum 3-month course of pelvic radiotherapy between March 20, 2014 and June 20, 2014 gave consent to participate in the study. Sexual life before cancer diagnosis and effects of treatment on sexual life were assessed with semi-configured score scale created by research group. RESULTS Main diagnostic finding was post-coital and post-menopausal bleeding, and vaginal stricture, vaginal dryness, and decreased sexual desire in partner or patient were primary sexual problems reported. CONCLUSION Health professionals should be aware of these effects and should encourage patients to express their problems and provide effective, individual counsel to each patient.

Reyhan Aydin Doğan Reyhan aydin doğan

Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the management of black bundle disease of maize caused by cephalosporium acremonium

Three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus fasiculatum, Glomus mossae and Acaulispora laevis) were used as bio-agents to manage black bundle disease of maize caused by C.acremonium. The results revealed that colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in root system of the host reduce the percentage of disease incidenceconsiderably.In the pots inoculated with G. fasiculatum no disease incidence (0.0%) was recorded whereas, in the pots inoculated with A. leavis and G. mossae 16.66 % of disease incidence was recorded and the pots treated with pathogen shows 66.66% of disease incidence compare to control. Among the three bio-agents, Glomus fasiculatumproved to be more effective in managing the disease followed by G.mossae and A. laevis. In addition, all the three AM fungi enhanced the plant growth when they are used alone as inoculum as compared to dual inoculation with the C. acremonium and overall control. This clearly suggests that, AM fungi if used, can serve dual purpose. It can be used as bio-control agent as it shows negative antagonistic interaction soil borne plant pathogens and used as growth promoter because of the ability to supply macro and micro nutrients to the host plants.

Veerabhadraswamy AL Veerabhadraswamy al

Comparative analysis of different crossover structures for solving a periodic inventory routing problem

One of the most important challenges for a company is to manage its supply chain efficiently. One way to do this is to control and minimize its various logistics costs together to achieve an overall optimization of its supply network. One such system that integrates two of the most important logistics activities, namely inventory holding and transportation, is known as the inventory routing problem. Our replenishment network consists of a supplier that uses a single vehicle to distribute a single type of item during each period to a set of customers with independent and deterministic demand. The objectives considered are the management of supplier and customer inventories, the assignment of customers to replenishment periods, the determination of optimal delivery quantities to avoid customer stock-outs, the design and optimization of routes. A genetic algorithm (GA) is developed to solve our IRP. Different crossover structures are proposed and tested in two sets of reference instances. A comparison of the performance of different crossover structures was established. Then, it was used to find the most appropriate crossover structure that provides better results in a minor computation time. The obtained results prove the competitiveness of GAs compared to literature approaches, demonstrate the performance of our approach to best solve large scale instances and provide better solution quality in fast execution time.

Mohamed Salim Amri Sakhri Mohamed salim amri sakhri

Surface modification of anhydrous borax with stearic acid by wet coating method

The wet coating of anhydrous borax powders with stearic acid (SA) to reverse their inherent hydrophilic surface properties was investigated. The coating procedure was based on the results from a previous study that revealed that the stearic acid solution (2 wt. % SA) mixed for 60 minute at 750 rpm on the magnetic stirrer was sufficient for the surface modification of anhydrous borax. For the experiments, stearic acid powders were first dissolved in water at 80 °C. The mixture obtained by adding anhydrous borax powders to this solution was vigorously mixed on a magnetic stirrer to initiation and completion the surface modification. Each of these solutions was then filtered using a filter paper to separate the undissolved particles, and the residue on paper was dried at 50 °C for 48 h until constant weighing was obtained. Wettability has been accepted as a key parameter for success in wet coating treatment. This parameter gained via the experimental characterization technique was used for an evaluation of the powder properties. The degree of wettability of anhydrous borax powders was measured and compared both after their surfaces were coated with stearic acid and after they were treated with water for a certain period of time in an aqueous environment. The stearic acid coating made the powder hydrophobic and this property was highly preserved after washing.

Journal of Characterization Journal of characterization

Standardization of artificial diet for the mass rearing of helicoverpa armigera

Experiment was carried out to standardize the artificial diet for mass rearing of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) under laboratory conditions. The average length and breadth of egg was 0.51±0.06 mm, 0.46±0.37 mm and 0.52±0.03 mm, 0.48±0.62 on artificial and natural diet. The average length and breadth of first, second, third, fourth and fifth instar larvae was 1.40±0.09 mm, 0.46±0.02 mm and 1.42±0.01 mm, 0.47±0.16 mm and 4.03±0.22 mm, 0.66±0.07 mm and 4.31±0.01 mm, 0.89±0.25 mm and 8.19±0.36 mm, 1.57±0.63 mm, and 10.29±0.72 mm, 1.87±0.91 mm and 18.70±0.44 mm, 2.78±0.040 mm and 20.15±0.03 mm, 3.17±0.55 mm and 26.01±0.19 mm, 4.09±0.39 mm and 27.32±0.027 mm, 5.88±0.69 mm, respectively with the average duration of 2.69±0.32 and 2.54±0.29, 3.77±0.65 and 3.79±0.11, 3.88±0.49 and 3.72±1.23, 5.35±0.55 and 5.72±0.91 and 6.61±0.008, 6.46±1.07 days, respectively on artificial as well as on natural diet. The average length and breadth of adult male and female was 18.01±0.48 mm and 35.09±1.25 mm, 18.51±1.04 mm and 38.11±1.37 mm, 19.00±0.18 mm and 19.10±0.49 mm, 37.75±1.27 mm and 41.23±1.69 mm, respectively. The average pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition period was 2.52±0.86 and 2.76±0.84 days, 4.93±0.78 and 5.08±0.90 days and 0.65±0.49 and 0.79±0.93 days, respectively. The total life cycle of male and female was 40.50±2.29 and 41.81±1.89 days and 42.59±1.77 and 43.80±1.93 days.

DR. BABU LAL JAT Dr. babu lal jat

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