Pharmacy Education articles list

Empowerment of aisyiyah members through the application of germas on aspects of drug storage at home

The government has implemented the Healthy Living Community Movement (GERMAS) program by promoting the pharmaceutical sector related to drug storage at home. However, many problems still exist in storing household medicines in the community. This activity was carried out through a community empowerment approach using the community capacity-building method for a community organization, Aisyiyah, which consists of Muslim women in the Grendeng village, Purwokerto. This activity was carried out in stages, namely pre-test methods, lectures, group teaching, self-empowerment through peer teaching and training, and measuring the success of activities using post-tests. Based on the activities, partners' knowledge about storing medicines at home has increased in a good category.

Much Ilham Novalisa Aji Wibowo

Off-label use of misoprostol in obstetric-gynecology patients at a private hospital in banyumas

Using off-label drugs in obstetric-gynecology patients requires caution because of the high risk of pregnancy. Although there is still debate, data profiling its use in clinical practice is lacking. This study aims to observe the use of off-label drugs in obstetrics and gynecology patients in private hospitals, especially the pill Misoprostol. This study used a descriptive observational approach to hospital medical record data. Retrieval of research data retrospectively at Bunda General Hospital (X Hospital) for July 2017 – December 2017 and Sinar Kasih Hospital (Y Hospital) for January 2018 – December 2018. The number of samples was determined using the Slovin formula, with a systematic random sampling technique at X Hospital and total sampling at Y Hospital. The samples were 220 RM at X 130 Hospital and Y 90 Hospital. The research was conducted in the period January 2019 - March 2019. The results were analyzed univariately using several related references. The results showed 26.92% of misoprostol off-label use in X Hospital and 4% in Y Hospital. The off-label drug found was Misoprostol which belongs to the category of off-label indications (Missed Abortion, Incomplete Abortion, Blighted Ovum, and Induction of labor in cases of Serotinus, KPD, and IUFD), off-label doses (50 µg, 100 µg, and 400 µg), and off-label routes of administration (sublingual and vaginal). ​

Much Ilham Novalisa Aji Wibowo

Continuing pharmacy education and training in libya

Lifelong learning is becoming part of the philosophy of professional education. Continuing medical education is the responsibility of all personnel who are responsible for the delivery of components of the health care delivery system. Continuing education is becoming increasingly obvious for medical universities, hospitals, and health care providers. Pharmacists who practice in a community pharmacy and hospital, and who are participating in residency recognize that the traditional role of the pharmacist is changing. Over the last decades, a host of new services have been identified as a function of the pharmacist [1]. A review of these services revealed a personal commitment to continuing education. It is the absolute need to develop a level of competence that will improve patient care. In Libya, pharmacists working in the community practice setting are pharmacists with a diploma of pharmacy or with a Bachelor of Pharmaceutical Science, Master of Science, and Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm D). The main objective is that the graduates possess the knowledge and skills needed to perform optimally to man the pharmaceutical services [1, 2]. Patient's expectations from pharmacists are that the medicine should be effective, safe and affordable. Other expectations from Libyan pharmacists would be to dispense the drugs according to the rules with the right advice on how and when the medicines should be used, and what to do in the case of adverse drug reactions, and the provision of advice on common illnesses. Nevertheless, it is an undeniable fact that the pharmacist has failed to provide all these patient-oriented services [3]. It should be noted that the quality of pharmacy education and training can be improved through certain processes of accreditation.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Exploration of drug-drug interaction in prescriptions of libyan practitioners in community pharmacies

The drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are actions or events that occur when two or more drugs administered together, may cause a clinical significance or not. There are certain factors that may affect the severity of DDIs such as age, gender, number of drugs prescribed, and physician specialists. This study aims to answer: Is there DDI in Libyan community pharmacies? In addition, to explore the factors that might be affecting DDI. Drug Interactions Checkers are used. 200 prescriptions were collected randomly from two different areas ( high and low income),100 from each one and were used to investigate the DDIs by using two different sources ( and BNF platforms), bearing in mind, age, gender, prescribers’ specialty, and drug number (prescription size). A personal interview questionnaire with pharmacists for investigate a source of DDI knowledge was considered. The correlation test was used to analysis the findings. The randomly selected sample has 316 drug combinations. The study has revealed a minimum of three drugs (46.0%). In general, was the richer source of DDI than BNF (66.5% and 34.5%, respectively). It is found that 66.5% (67.0% of this is moderate DDI) of these combinations have DDI by A significant correlation between DDI and gender (male > female, p = 0.035) was found. In a state of residential areas, the results are similar in both selected pharmacies. Most moderate DDIs (21.0% and 15.0%) are prescribed by orthopedics and psychiatrists, respectively. The observational interview questionnaire indicated that 100% of the participating pharmacists had no source of knowledge regarding DDI, 100% of 200 prescriptions had no chick it regarding DDI and 100% of found DDI is released to use by community pharmacies to patients. More than half of the prescribed drug combinations have DDIs (classified as moderate DDIs), and all of them are released for use by pharmacists.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Evaluation of multiple-choice and short essay questions in pharmacology education

Multiple choice questions (MCQs) and short essay questions (SEQs) are common methods of the assessment of medical students in courses of pharmacology. Poorly constructed test items (questions) are a widespread problem resulting in failure to assess learning objectives. It has been reported that there are 36.0% to 65.0% flawed test items in medical education assessment tools. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate MCQs by determining the item writing flaws (IWFs) and to evaluate the SEQs by determining the cognitive level of each item. Four pharmacology tests were administered to third-year pharmacy students at Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, Bayda, Libya. These were evaluated by determining the IWFs and the level of the cognitive domains. Based on Buckwalter’s modification of Bloom’s taxonomy cognitive level, for the SEQs, 30.0% of the questions were attempted to check recall of information, 26.0% were attempted to evaluate understanding and interpretation of data and 43.0% of the questions were attempted to check the application of knowledge for solving a particular problem. For the MCQs, 94.6% of the questions were attempted to evaluate the understanding and interpretation of data. For the IWFs, there were more than 40.0% of flawed questions. The most common writing flaws were the negative stem (47.4%), unfocused item (16.0%), non-homogenous in grammar and contents (10.0%), all the above (10.0%) and clang association (05.0%). In a short essay, the SEQs were of excellent quality because they were equally distributed among the three levels of cognitive (level I, II and III). On the other hand, the most common mistakes IWFs of the MCQs were the negative stem (47.0%) and the idea was not clearly and concisely stated in the stem (16.0%). This study concludes that questions in SEQs are valid to measure the learning objective but MCQs were not in pharmacology courses in Libya.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in libyan patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 2013-2022

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading reason of death among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Individuals with DM have a two to five time's greater risk of developing CVD than non-DM. Unfortunately, little data exists on Libya's prevalence and characteristics of cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors and to assess their control among patients with type 2 DM (T2DM). All the patients with T2DM who attended the outpatient clinic at National Diabetes Hospital from September 2013 to April 2022 were interviewed and examined and included in this study. Demographical data age, smoking habit, body mass index measure, drug intake, history of previous cardiovascular events, blood pressure and fasting lipid profile were all recorded. 1049 patients have completed the study with a mean age of 54.06 ± 14.5 years old (females represented 68.0% of the studied sample size), there were different duration of diabetes between the studied sample, varying from newly diagnosed patients (n = 265, 25.2%) and above ten years of diabetes duration patients (n = 488, 46.5%). Active smoking in 129 patients (12.3%), the bodyweight of studied patients ranged from 44.0 Kg to 186 Kg (85.65 ± 1.73), 820 of the patients had uncontrolled body weight (78.85%). Uncontrolled blood pressure, even with treatment, was found in 304 patients (29.0%), uncontrolled dyslipidaemia in 45 patients (04.3%), and uncontrolled hyperglycaemia in 816 patients (77.9%). Established CVD was positive in 295 patients (28.2%), maximum age group was in 54 - 74 years (n = 516, 49.3%). The most typical age group with multiple (more than three) CVD risk factors was 54 - 74 years of age, were female patients with more than ten years of history of diabetes, uncontrolled hyperglycemia (HBA1c > 10%), uncontrolled body weight, uncontrolled blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Thus, the present data indicated that Libyan patients with diabetes mellitus have high CVD risk factors. Even in patients with previous events, these uncontrolled risk factors elevate the likelihood of repeated cardiovascular events. Patients with diabetes mellitus necessitate a more aggressive approach to control the modified risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Voices of change: assessing the significance of social movements in shaping indian politics

This research paper examines the dynamic interplay between social movements and Indian politics to assess their importance in shaping the socio-political landscape of the nation. In recent decades, India has witnessed the rise of various social movements, from grassroots activism to large-scale protests, each with distinct goals and socio-political implications. This study uses a multidimensional approach that combines historical analysis, case studies, and theoretical frameworks to reveal the complex connections between social movements and political transformations. The research begins by delving into the historical context of social movements in India, highlighting their evolution from the pre-independence era to the present. By examining key movements such as India's independence struggle, the Chipko movement, anti-corruption protests and farmers' agitations, this paper seeks to identify recurring patterns, strategies and outcomes across periods. The study further examines the impact of social movements on policy-making, political discourse and institutional reforms. By analyzing specific cases where social movements have influenced legislative decisions or brought about political change, the research aims to assess the tangible results of grassroots activism on the functioning of Indian democracy. The role of social media and technology in amplifying the voices of social movements is also explored, emphasizing their transformative influence on public opinion, mobilization and information dissemination. This study uses a comparative analysis of movements with varying degrees of success to distinguish the factors that contribute to their effectiveness and endurance. the research presents a comprehensive assessment of the role played by social movements in shaping Indian politics. By synthesizing historical perspectives, contemporary case studies and theoretical insights, this article contributes to a nuanced understanding of the complex relationship between social activism and political change in the Indian context. The aim of the findings is to inform policy makers, scholars and activists about the potential of social movements as catalysts for positive social transformations and democratic development.

Dr Gedam Kamalakar

Importance of herbaria in herbal drug discovery

The conservation of traditional medicinal knowledge opens the door towards modern aspects of herbal drug discovery. It started with knowledge exchange through ethnic groups through oral tradition and then in the documented form. Herbaria conserving identified and authenticated plants for future correspondence play an important role. In presenting the review, the authors have declared different auxiliary aspects of herbaria for phytomedicinal research.

Dr. Salman Ahmed

 < 1 2