India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.
In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.
Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.
One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.
Background: Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) antibodies may be considered as biomarkers of typhoid fever, a severe febrile systemic illness caused by an invasive Gram-negative Bacterium S. typhi. Worldwide, about 21-26.9 million cases of typhoid fever and 200 000-215 000 deaths, occur annually. Between 2003 and 2005, statistics have shown a rising trend in the incidence of typhoid fever in Abia and Enugu States. The aim of the study was to determine the sero-prevalence of S. typhi antibodies in some rural communities of Abia and Enugu States as proxy indicators of prevalence typhoid fever (TF) in the two states. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of the sero-prevalence of S. typhi antibodies in ten rural communities of Umunneochi Local Government Area (LGA) of Abia State and Ezeagu LGA of Enugu State using 421 (200 in Abia and 221 in Enugu) blood samples for the Widal test to determine the titres of these antibodies. Results: In the Abia communities the mean sero-prevalence of S. typhi antibodies was 68.2%, while in Enugu it was 87.1%. Between the two states, difference in the sero-prevalence of S. typhi antibodies was significant (p=0.03). Conclusions: The sero-prevalence of S. typhi antibodies was higher (87.1%) in the Enugu communities, compared to the Abia communities (68.2%). To reduce the incidence and prevalence of TF in the communities, access to safe domestic water, improved sanitation and good food hygiene needs to be improved. Health-seeking behaviour also needs improvement.
Coronaviruses are closely related virus causing several types of respiratory tract infections ranging from common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). There are many other ways in which Covid-19 will impact the existing public health issues. With the rising number of covid19 cases, it has been reported that people with the weaker immune system are at higher risk. We identified the mechanism of action of cyclophosphamide and its impact on the lung. Pulmonary side effects associated with cyclophosphamide are rare and dose-related. They manifest as early-onset pneumonitis, in patients with symptoms especially like cough and dyspnea. Acrolein in cyclophosphamide is the main component linked with the toxic effect. We hypothesize that use of cyclophosphamide, an antineoplastic agent and immunosuppressive agent used in treating many cancers and autoimmune disorders (like rheumatoid arthritis and ANCA vasculitis), induces severe lung toxicity which can be one of the contributing factors for the increased risk of COVID 19 complication. These factors are to be recognized to improve prevention and control of the disease.