Abstract This paper evaluates the Ethiopian VAT tax type based on ten good tax principles that are: Equity and Fairness, Certainty, Convenience of payment, Economy in collection, Simplicity, Neutrality, Economic Growth & Efficiency, Transparency & Visibility, Minimum tax Gap, Appropriate Government revenue. The findings of this evaluation revealed VAT which six principles are under positive effect in Ethiopia meets of six Conon of the good tax system. Those are: Certainty for taxpayers, Convenience at the time of payment, neutrality, economic growth and efficiency, transparency and visibility, appropriate government revenue. Finally, the author suggests recommendation that could be used by the government in general and tax authorities in particularly in the preparation of future tax proposal reform and issuance of any directive, proclamation, rule, and procedure which is going to implemented need to encapsulate this Canon as Guiding route to improve service delivery and alleviating problem emanated from shortcoming from the administration.
Bank sector crisis across the globe is largely blamed on the joint effort of bank liquidity and bank credit risks. And so, the twin concepts of liquidity and credit risks have come under keen academic scrutiny, especially in investment finance. Contributing to the extant literature on these developments, secondary data were obtained from the websites of nine banks in Ghana, spanning 2008 to 2018, to determine how liquidity and credit risks separately and interactively impact bank stability in Ghana. Analysis of data was done using a panel regression through the fixed effects model after running the Hausman Test. The study confirms an inverse liquidity risk-bank stability relationship, emphasising the need to channel idle funds into interest-earning securities to consolidate bank profits. Although a further revelation suggests an insignificant negative relationship between credit risk and bank stability, it re-echoes the need to implement policy recommendations made by the Banks and Specialised Deposit-Taking Institutions’ ACT 2016 (ACT 930), section 62 of Ghana, on the threshold to lend funds to clients. The bank-size-stability relationship was positive. Increasing bank size through establishing more branches nationwide is encouraged but to a precautionary level since banks tend to suffer diseconomies of large scale operations due to unregulated expansion. There is the need to observe the Basel III provisions on maintenance of a 30-day optimum liquidity threshold of up to 100% and above. Besides, banks should tighten up their credit requirements and also ensure loan repayments history is monitored to benefit clients who are in good standing.
The free senior high school policy is one of the best social and economic intervention policies that openly affect both parents and their wards in senior high school. This realisation is reached on the backdrop of the policy’s role in redeeming parents from their economic and financial burden. This study, therefore, looks at the effect of introducing the free senior high school policy on the economic and social lives of parents and students respectively. A correlational cross-sectional descriptive design was used. Questionnaires were administered to three hundred and thirty-six (336) parents of wards in three senior high schools in the North East and Upper East Regions of Ghana. The study confirms that the introduction of the free senior high school policy relieved the financial burden of parents, especially guardians from rural settlements. Besides, there was a lack of adequate stakeholder consultation, hence saddled with implementation challenges. Delay in disbursement of funds for feeding and learning materials presented yet another problem. It is important that governments find sustainable sources of funding for the educational system and also ensure the double-track system is regularised into a single-track system by expanding academic user facilities and increasing the numerical strength of both teaching and non-teaching staff in various senior high schools.
Human being has some basic needs which include Food, Clothing & Shelter, in addition to above Healthcare, Education, Sanitation are also core part of basic necessities in modern society. In above mention basic necessities Healthcare facility was near to unavailable till independence for majority of citizens in country but this picture change dramatically with help of FDI allowed by Govt. of India. Foreign Direct Investment as a strategic element of funding is required in every develop & developing country. FDI inflows are long term in nature which causes source of non-debt finance, as well as bring modern & innovative technology in country by creating international network. In this paper, author attempted to discover how FDI is crucially impact on Indian Pharmaceutical Sectors progress by stimulating domestic investment & new employment opportunities, improving healthcare facilities to citizens in India. With the help of available relevant secondary data, a qualitative approach was followed for the study. It was found in study that the major factors responsible for attracting FDI in pharmaceutical sector are rise in outsourcing activities, demand in the generics market, demand from emerging segments, increase in domestic demand, large numbers of forthcoming patent expires. On the other hand Indian pharmaceutical industry is facing some challenges such as, low government expenditure on healthcare, poor healthcare infrastructure in rural areas, lack of proper Govt. policy to attract larger FDI in healthcare sector.
Foreign Direct Investment as a strategic element of funding is required in every develop & developing country for achieving the financial growth & reforms and continue the pace of development and progress of the economy. FDI inflows are long term in nature which causes source of non debt finance, as well as bring modern & innovative technology in country by creating international network. In this paper, author attempted to discover how FDI is crucially important economic catalyst of Indian monetary progress by stimulating domestic investment. The essential purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of FDI on fiscal growth by analyzing most important sector i.e. Banking Sector. And this sector is rapidly expanding with several challenges, raise due to competition by the new players in this ever growing sector. Whereas new initiatives of government like demonetization & Digital India, leads toward need of modern technologies & polices in banking sector which could be only possible by FDI in banking sector.
This research paper focused on the role of FDI in Indian automobile sector& dramatic changes in automobile sector after 1991’s open economy policy of Govt. This paper also attempt to splash light on some important aspects such as the journey of Indian Automobile sector from scratch to spectacular progress with combination of foreign technology & Indian talents, growth in direct & indirect employment, economic development of some important aspect in country like GDP as well technology transfer, improvement in R&D through the automobile clusters in country, focusing on potential of Indian automobile sector which is attracting Foreign investment.As well the policy support (Automobile mission plans 2006-16, 2016-2026, NATRiPS, Make in India Mission) by the Central & State Government for establishment of production facilities attracted automakers worldwide. As FDI is key driver not only in terms of inflow of FOREX but changes in the attitude of Government, Customers, &Automakers itself.
The present study focused on analysing the FDI inflow in Electronics industry form year 2007 to 2018 in country and role of FDI in development of the electronic industry in India. As well identify the current status of Electronics industry in world and the share of India in the same. The present research work also attempted to take overview of various policies introduced by Government of India to promote the FDI in Electronics industry. The FDI inflows statistics reveals that the separate category of Electronics sector is created in year 2007 by DIPP for recording FDI inflow. And sector specific data published in DIPP factsheet revels that this industry has attracted 0.55 % of total cumulative FDI inflow in country till December 2018 which is very negligible share of overall FDI in country. The overview of policies revels that NPE–2012 to New NPE-2018 had attempted to provide multiple incentives for Foreign Investors to establish their electronic manufacturing facilities in country but very negligible response has been seen in response of the same. Further results of study reveals that due to various FTA’s & being signatory of WTO’s ITA-1 in year 1996 leads toward reducing competitiveness of electronic manufacturing in India and country become net importer of approximately 50% of overall domestic need of electronics products.
The present study focused on analysing the impact of ‘Make in India’ campaign on FDI inflows in country. The research period is divided in two parts one is pre ‘MII’ & another is post ‘MII’ period. The analysis of ‘Make in India’ campaign is done to identify the scope of the campaign & methodology of working of various allied departments monitoring campaign. The present research work also attempted to take overview of various policy reforms initiated by Government of India to promote the FDI as well domestic investment in 25 sectors shortlisted under MII. The FDI inflows statistics reveals that, the post MII period is showing the highest growth in FDI equity inflows as compare to same period i.e. 2009- 2014. The MII initiative is one of the reason for the jump in FDI inflows. The overview of policy reforms shows that GOI through DIPP attempted to open almost all sectors for 100% FDI through automatic route. Government has provided multiple incentives for Foreign Investors to establish their manufacturing facilities in country but very negligible response has been seen in the nature of FDI equity inflows in the same period. Further results of study reveals that multiple ‘MOU’s have been signed by States & Central Governments, but they yet not converted in actual investments. The major reasons behind the same is lack of SWOT analysis through Governments before inviting the foreign investors. As well lack of basic infrastructure, land, lack of skilled manpower, cheap & un interrupted power supply to MIDC’s & SEZ’s is yet not successfully provided, lower rankings in Ease Of Doing Business (EODB), Global Manufacturing Competitiveness Index (GMCI) is also cause of concern & tumbling block in the success of MII mission..
Now a day’s contribution of Electronic banking towards economic development plays a crucial role in developing countries like India. Banks are no longer restricted to traditional banking rather it is shifted to the virtual banking system. Customers are experiences more feasible in banking operations because of Information technology. The banks are adopting IT-enabled tools and techniques for banking operations which improve in offering quality service to the customers. In traditional banking customers has to visit bank branches to avail banking services. Now with the ATMs, Internet banking, Mobile banking and Information Technology-enabled services are replacing the traditional method of service. In the recent days banks are concentrating on value-based service through E-banking. The present study throws a light on the growth of Electronic banking and its product which are used in the banking sector.