Climate variability also has the potential to worsen existing vulnerabilities such as Malaria, HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis. This study examined the effects of poverty diseases and adaptive capacities to climate change on farm income along river Niger in Edo and Kogi States, Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 358 respondents using multistage sampling techniques from Edo and Kogi States. Descriptive statistics and different functional forms of ordinary least squares (OLS) were used as analytical tools. The results revealed that increase in farm size and age will lead to 1.27% and 1.83% increase in farmers’ income respectively. The major constraints identified by the respondents were lack of funds and credit challenge (94.40%), distance to health centres (93.90%) and access to freshwater supplies (82.70%). It was concluded that the majority 83.80% of respondents had malaria diseases. The study recommends that to reduce the effect of poverty disease, there is a need for policy makers to engage communities when making decisions relating to their health.