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A comprehensive review on emerging and re-emerging zoonotic viral diseases: a major threat to human beings

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  • Saranya Devi. K

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A zoonotic disease is an infectious disease caused by pathogens such as bacteria, virus, rickettsia, fungi, parasite or prion that has been transmitted from an animal, especially a vertebrate to human beings. Usually, the first infected human transmits the infectious agent to other humans very rapidly; it is one of the important concerns of zoonoses. The World Health Organization (WHO) currently list the Emerging infectious diseases (EID) of epidemic issues in their research and development blueprint as COVID-19 (Corona viruses), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filovirus), Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (Nairo virus), Lassa Fever (Lassa virus), Nipah (Henipa virus ), Rift Valley fever (Phlebo virus) and Zika (Flavi virus). Due to the deadly pandemics facing by the globe, it is essential to understand the way of transmission of emerging viruses, its mode of infection and important measures to eliminate or control them from the world is essential. However, mankind overcomes so many deadly viruses with the help of scientific knowledge, through vaccination, new therapies, drugs etc. Nowadays, viral zoonoses like rabies (Lyssa virus) are 100% preventable through vaccination and medication even though, humans face lots of new threats especially emerging zoonosis diseases like Covid19. This review summarized the major zoonotic viruses affecting human beings, their source, pathogenicity and its important ways to overcome the transmission of microbes from animal to humankind.

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