India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.
In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.
India is not known as a country to be in for a bisexual person. Homosexual acts even within wedlock are a punishable offence in India. Legal battles over provisions in the Indian Penal Code which criminalizes any sexual act “against the order of nature” are rife. Even though Kerala has been hailed as a paradox inside India (mainly due to its human development parameters), the social, cultural and legal environment in the state is hostile to individuals who question hetero-normativity. Non-judgemental and unbiased scientific therapy or counselling are seldom available to sexual minorities. This paper is an attempt to map the experiences of a female who is openly bisexual, and is living in Kerala. An ethnographic interview was conducted where the experiences of the participant are explored, from the relationship dynamics as seen by her, to sexual experiences and difficulties in relationships. A reference is also made to the personal and social support systems that are in place for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) community in Kerala and their role in initiating discourses regarding the topic. A few pointers for future studies in the topic, especially within the context of Kerala are also put forward.
Purpose – The purpose of this review is to critically analyse the extant research and help readers understand the ways the school-based comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) can contribute towards youth development and urge policymakers to implement nationwide good-quality, scientific, culturally relevant, age-appropriate and holistic school-based CSE. Design/methodology/approach – This literature review has been designed using the extant information available on Google Scholar, Web of Science (WoS) and PubMed. Findings – The findings of this review inform that there is a significant need amongst the youth of the day for good-quality, scientific, culturally relevant, age-appropriate and holistic school-based CSE. Also, the findings suggest that there are significant associations between school-based CSE and youth development. Research limitations/implications – This research paper although draws from extant literature about sexuality education and its delivery across the globe, it applies the sexuality education scenario in India. Practical implications – The findings of this review aim to implicate nationwide policy-level changes to implement CSE in the school curricula. There are more practical behavioural changes that CSE could foster amongst students, which are discussed in the review. Social implications – Due to the behavioural changes that CSE could foster amongst students, it may help in the upbringing of responsible citizens who are free of health complications, who can make independent health related decisions and look after each other in the community. Originality/value – This review is an original contribution from the author. Whilst there is extant literature about CSE and youth development, this article fills the void by investigating the interdependent contributions that both the concepts can make to one another and encourages more research on this topic.
Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.
This paper throws light on the role played by culture and traditions specifically of Hindu religion in legitimising the subordinate position of women in Indian society. Along with presenting a brief account on the status of women from ancient times to contemporary situation, the sex-gender binary has also been explored. How a child after his birth socialised to behave in a certain way on the basis of his/her sex has been noted. This process of socialisation is based on the age old customs and traditions which are discriminatory in nature. The male child is taught to be strong, dominating and aggressive in nature and henceforth assigned laborious work to do for managing the finances of house. On the other hand, female child is taught to be sensitive, loving and caring and therefore assigned to manage household work, child nurturing and motherhood related responsibilities.
One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.
Woman constitutes the family, which leads to the development of society and Nation. The social and economic development of women is necessary for the overall economic advancement of any society or a country. Entrepreneurship comprises venture activities that are the center of the recognition of various opportunities, creativity, and innovation in the production process and development of new business models and ventures. Entrepreneurship plays a major role in developing society of a fastdeveloping country like India. In comparison to other countries, the event of women entrepreneurship is extremely low in India, especially in rural areas. However, middle-class women aren't too eager to alter their roles because of fear of social backlash. The growth is more visible among high families in urban areas. Rural women frequently have primary responsibility for agricultural production, additionally to domestic responsibilities and childcare. In developing countries like India where the economic status of women is extremely pathetic especially in rural areas and opportunities of earning are very less. For establishing self-esteem and recognition in society, women are attracted to entrepreneurship. To sustain within the competitive market, businesses administered by women are mainly hooked into internal resources and their capabilities supported which they struggle to compete with the external environment. The present paper endeavors to study the opportunities and challenges of women entrepreneurs. The study aims to analyze the factors that encourage women entrepreneurs. This study is based on secondary data collected from previous research papers, journals given by various research scholars, blogs, and websites. This study concludes that women entrepreneurs should be provided with special training facilities to overcome challenges and for developing their skills and talents.
Health tourism is a visit made to different regions in order to improve the physical well-being of the person. Medical tourism, on the other hand, is the sub-branch of health tourism and it is a form of travel that is used for medical treatment and also the tourism activities of the country visited. Under the name of medical tourism in women's health; cosmetic surgery, reproduction, birth, IVF, gynecological treatments, abortion, abortion and newborn care travels are included. It has been observed that many women travel around the world and in Turkey for these reasons and medical tourism has an important place in terms of women's health. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of medical tourism on women's health in line with the literature
Poor water quality and lack of access to improved sanitation continue to pose a significant threat to human health. The burden of disease analysis suggests that lack of access to safe water supply, sanitation and hygiene is the third most significant risk factor for poor health in developing countries with high mortality rates. Diarrhoea is the leading disease associated with unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene and is responsible for the deaths. The study observed that out of the 150 respondents, 37% are 31-40 years, followed by 20-30 years with 32%. 130 (86.7%) respondents have got married, and 61% of the respondents are female. 85% adopted the nuclear family system, and 50% of respondents are illiterates in the study areas. 85% of respondents are daily wage earners, 37% are earnings rupees between 2000-2500 per month. 27% of respondents are landless labours, and 37% of households possess below 2 acres of land. 40% of respondents suffer from health problems, and 44% consume rice as their staple food. 62% of respondents have debts, and 33% got from money lenders. 62% of respondents do not have toilet facilities and go open defecation. 92% of respondents stated that toilet makes dignity, saves time and energy, saves their children school days, makes adolescent girls privacy, save wage loss, and toilet makes quality life.
This paper found that 35% of Adivasis have health problems, and 73% said that they are getting treatment with RMP. 87% have toilet facility and more than 12% still defecate openly. 18.3% said that they faced different problems at open defecation, and 50% of women not using sanitary napkins. Nearly 90% of respondents wash their hands after toilets and coming from outside of the home. Ten per cent of respondents said that they do not have an awareness of sanitation. Therefore, the study confirmed that the sanitation facilities considerably made the women's dignity and quality of life better in the study area. Moreover, four case studies also focused on open defecation problems in the study area.
The valuable effects of regular exercise for promotion of health and therapy of diseases were obviously evaluated. The notion that exercise can be considered as a medication has been hypothesized. The growing problems of obesity and non-communicable diseases have placed a great burden on public health experts to promote physical literacy and physical activity among the modern day population. Physical literacy and physical activity have become the cornerstones of women’s health. Women have certain special needs that includes reproductive health. Increased physical activity and maintaining normal body image and body weight will help a woman attain physical, mental and spiritual development. With the growing number of women with obesity and the implication of obesity as one of the main risk factors for non-communicable diseases like diabetes, hypertension, stroke and osteoarthritis, a knowledge and awareness about physical activity is essential. Thus, physical activity is a fundamental aspect of the improvement of motor skills and work performance, allowing a better healthy lifestyle. Physical exercise is effective to be measured as a drug, however, more care should be considered to the dosing and individual variations between genders.
Poor water quality and lack of access to improved sanitation continue to pose a significant threat to human health. The burden of disease analysis suggests that lack of access to safe water supply, sanitation and hygiene is the third most significant risk factor for poor health in developing countries with high mortality rates. Diarrhoea is the leading disease associated with unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene and is responsible for the deaths. The study observed that out of the 150 respondents, 37% are 31-40 years, followed by 20-30 years with 32%. 130 (86.7%) respondents have got married, and 61% of the respondents are female. 85% adopted the nuclear family system, and 50% of respondents are illiterates in the study areas. 85% of respondents are daily wage earners, 37%are earnings rupees between 2000-2500 per month. 27% of respondents are landless labours, and 37% of households possess below 2 acres of land. 40% of respondents suffer from health problems, and 44% consume rice as their staple food. 62% of respondents have debts, and 33% got from money lenders. 62% of respondents do not have toilet facilities and go open defecation. 92% of respondents stated that toilet makes dignity, saves time and energy, saves their children school days, makes adolescent girls privacy, save wage loss, and toilet makes quality life.
Background: Ending open defecation has been identified as a top priority for reducing global inequalities in water and sanitation (WASH). It is explicitly referenced in sustainable development goals (SDGs) target 6.2 and closely associated with more comprehensive efforts to end extreme poverty by 2030. Since 2000, the global rate of open defecation has decreased from 21% to 9% (0.7 percentage points per year). However, the 673 million people still practicing open defecation in 2017 were increasingly concentrated in a small number of countries, and these will need to be the primary focus of efforts to end open defecation by 2030. Objectives: To study the socio-economic background of Adivasis, to study the status of sanitation in rural areas, to examine whether economic conditions affect open defecation, to examine whether better sanitation facilities improve health conditions and to examine whether improved sanitation facilities impact the quality of life and thereby dignity of tribal women. Methods: Essentially it is an empirical study and a multi-stage random sample design was adopted. Data were collected from 120 sample households from two villages, i.e., Bandarigudem and Nadikudi of Khammam districts in Telangana State through a structured questionnaire. Statistical tools like frequency distribution, percentages, cross-tabulation with Chi-Square test, and a case study method were used. Results & Discussion: This paper found that 35% of Adivasis have health problems, and 73% said that they are getting treatment with RMP. 87% have toilet facility and more than 12% still defecate openly. 18.3% said that they faced different problems at open defecation, and 50% of women not using sanitary napkins. Nearly 90% of respondents wash their hands after toilets and coming from outside of the home. Ten per cent of respondents said that they do not have an awareness of sanitation. Therefore, the study confirmed that the sanitation facilities considerably made the women's dignity and quality of life better in the study area. Moreover, four case studies also focused on open defecation problems in the study area.