Pharmacutics articles list

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

Study of temperature variation in human peripheral region during wound healing process due to plastic surgery

In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.

Manisha Jain

Metapuf: a challenge response pair generator

Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.

Abhishek Kumar

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

Formulation design and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal patch of ketorolac for the treatment of periodontitis

Ketorolac tromethamine, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was formulated into mucoadhesive films to overcome the limitations in the currently available dosage and routes of administration which in sequence will increase patients’ compliance. Films were cast from organic and aqueous solvents using various bioadhesive polymers namely: HPMC E-15, Eudragit RLPO, Eudragit RSPO, Carbopol 934P. The prepared films were subjected to investigation for their physical and mechanical properties, swelling behaviors, in vitro bioadhesion, drug permeation via bovine buccal mucosa, and in vitro drug release. These properties were found to vary significantly depending on the preparation methods, the type of the polymers, and the ratio of addition of both plasticizers (i.e. polyethylene glycol and film forming agent. Formulation F4 is selected for best formulation because it shows the 98.85% drug release at time 6 hr. In addition, this film was subjected to in vitro and in vivo release. The obtained results indicate that the concentration of ketorolac in the oral cavity was maintained above 4.0 µg/ml for a period of at least 6 h. This film shows promising results for using the ketorolac mucoadhesive route of administration topically and systemically, and thus it will be subjected to clinical evaluation in future work.

Kuldeep vinchurkar

A comprehensive study of gorvara puta in preparation of rasa bhasma

Ayurvedic formulations are of three types, Herbal, Mineral and Herbo-Mineral. Of which, Herbomineral is prepared either by Khalweeya or by Bhasmeekarana procedures. The quality of Bhasma depends on the number of putas given. Rasa Bhasma is one such kind of a Herbo-mineral preparation which can be obtained by Puta procedure as described in texts of Rasa Shastra. Though there are different procedures mentioned for preparation of Rasa Bhasma, maarana done with Gorvara puta seems to be an apt way to obtain the final product. Puta is the generalised way of heat application used during the pharmaceutical procedures of Rasa dravyas, where the purified organic Metal/Mineral is converted completely into powder form which can be absorbed easily into the body without causing any ill effects. Different types of Puta have been explained for bhasmeekarana of different metals and minerals. Among them, certain putas have been mentioned where Mandaagni plays a crucial role in Maarana (Incineration). These Mandaagniputas are in use of preparing certain Bhasmas like ShilajitBhasma, HaratalaBhasma, GouripashanaBhasma, and PaaradaBhasma. As these drugs are having relatively low boiling and melting points when compared to other dravyas, and are easy to evaporate when exposed to high temperatures, they need a standardized quantum of heat by which they can be transformed into Bhasma. Gorvara puta is one such kind where agni plays a major role in the preparation of Bhasma. So, the present study A Comprehensive Study of Gorvara Puta in Preparation of Rasa Bhasmahas has been under taken.

Suri abhiram

A critical review on mode of action of ayurvedic formulations on jwara

Rasa aushadhis are known for their uniqueness in curing the diseases with a very low dosage. These formulations are divided into two types based on their mode of preparation i.e., Single drug and Compound drug formulations. Based on their origin, the drugs are divided into three types, Herbal, Mineral and Animal. Any of these two or three together is combined to make a compound formulation. Apart from these, the other major factor which is needed for a formulation is the Rasa Panchaka of a Drug. Many of the formulations are being prepared based on their availability, keeping their Rasa Panchaka and Samprapti vighatana in mind. These formulations are designed in such a way that two or more drugs will be having one common quality, or Opposite Qualities or an Antidote of a particular Vishadravya, which can help in curing the disease. So an attempt is made to Review Tribhuvanakeerti Rasa with its Probable mode of action.

Suri abhiram

Integrating pharmaceutical care into public health

Nowadays, the pharmacy profession is moving toward a multidisciplinary approach. Besides the pharmacists’ role beyond dispensing and checking the safety, quality and efficacy of the delivered medications, pharmacists are currently using their clinical knowledge to serve the community through different disciplines including drug counseling, vaccination, screening, and drug therapy management

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Formulation and evaluation of herbal face pack

formulation and evaluation of herbal face pace pack

Sumaira Taj

Phytochemical evaluation & pharmacological screening of didymocarpus pedicellata and ashwagandha for antiurolithiatic activity

The kidney stones are one of the most widely spreading disorders in the world. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of ethanolic extract of Didymocarpuspedicellata and Ashwagandha for its antiurolithiatic activity in rats. Urolithiasis was induced in adult male albino wistar rats by 0.75% of ethylene glycol for 28 days. The effect of the oral administration of the ethanolicextracts has been studied and is compared with the effect of oral administration of Cystone(Himalaya) as a standard on Wistar rat. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calciumand phosphate. Supplementation with ethanolic extract of the plants significantly reduced the elevated urinary oxalate, showing a regulatory action on endogenous oxalate synthesis. Both the plant extract showed significant antiurolithiatic activity

Zeenath Banu

Physicochemical properties and permeation across mouse skin of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

The skin provides an effective barrier and only limited number of drugs can penetrate in adequate amounts. This study aims to identify the relationship between the physicochemical properties and permeation across mouse skin of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in view of their feasibility to transdermal delivery. Biphenylacetic acid, diclofenac base, diclofenac sodium, indomethacin and piroxicam are the drugs studied. Number of physicochemical properties studies were performed. Drug permeation studies across hairless mouse skin were carried out using an in-vitro finite dosing diffusion cell. The relationship between physicochemical properties of the drugs studied and their percutaneous penetration was studied. Purity for the compounds studied ranged from 99.09% to 100% in which 99.89% purity was obtained for diclofenac base. At 7.4, the % ionized of piroxicam was found to be 95.12%, while for other drugs were in the range of 98.01% and 99.96%. The true partition coefficient values in the n-octanol/water system are in the range of 1.85 and 2.85, while in the n-octanol/phosphate system ranged from 2.14 to 3.70. Observed solubility in water, phosphate buffer and n-octanol ranged from 0.033 to 0.322, 0.202 to 0.329 mg per ml, and 2.19 to 16.10 mg per ml, respectively. A linear relationship was found between water solubility and melting point between steady-state rates of permeation across intact and viable skin, between n-octanol solubility and maximum predicted flux and between molecular volume and the ratio of maximum predicted flux. Predicted flux calculated was compared with the experimental data which resulted in a high correlation. Physicochemical criteria which were determined the feasibility of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs studied for transdermal delivery were identified. The relationships obtained in this study provide an essential physical and chemical properties that govern transport of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs across hairless mouse skin.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences