Pharmacovigilance articles list

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

Study of temperature variation in human peripheral region during wound healing process due to plastic surgery

In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.

Manisha Jain

Metapuf: a challenge response pair generator

Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.

Abhishek Kumar

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

A critical review on mode of action of ayurvedic formulations on jwara

Rasa aushadhis are known for their uniqueness in curing the diseases with a very low dosage. These formulations are divided into two types based on their mode of preparation i.e., Single drug and Compound drug formulations. Based on their origin, the drugs are divided into three types, Herbal, Mineral and Animal. Any of these two or three together is combined to make a compound formulation. Apart from these, the other major factor which is needed for a formulation is the Rasa Panchaka of a Drug. Many of the formulations are being prepared based on their availability, keeping their Rasa Panchaka and Samprapti vighatana in mind. These formulations are designed in such a way that two or more drugs will be having one common quality, or Opposite Qualities or an Antidote of a particular Vishadravya, which can help in curing the disease. So an attempt is made to Review Tribhuvanakeerti Rasa with its Probable mode of action.

Suri abhiram

Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice of pharmacovigilance among libyan healthcare professionals

The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of pharmacovigilance by healthcare professionals in Benghazi. A structured questionnaire adapted from a previous validated study. One hundred questionnaires were distributed in August 2019 and filled by healthcare providers working at different hospitals in Benghazi, Libya. Participants were 57% physicians and 43% pharmacists (age average 31-40 years). 47% had correctly defined Pharmacovigilance while 19% know what is meant by adverse drug reactions. Moreover, 61% of the participants did not share information about raising adverse drug reactions in some patients with other healthcare professionals. 35% of them did not know about the adverse drug reactions reporting system in Libya. Whereas, 42% have strongly agreed that reporting adverse drug reactions is essential. 41% and 45% of participants believed that reporting adverse drug reactions is not time-consuming and increases patient safety, respectively. In conclusion, educational programs and training courses about the importance of Pharmacovigilance for physicians and pharmacists in Benghazi are needed.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Assessment of the knowledge and perceptions of pharmacy students towards pharmacovigilance and adr reporting

AIM: The present cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, and perception related to pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting among the B.pharm Final year students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To assess the demographic details of the pharmacy students, their knowledge and perception toward pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting; a validated pretested questionnaire was used which comprises 11 knowledge-based closed-ended questions and 14 perceptions based agree/disagree questions. RESULT: The questionnaire was distributed to the 150 respondents of B. Pharm final year students who were willing to participate in the study. A response rate of 75% was recorded. The number of female respondents 53.3% was comparatively higher than the male respondents 46.6%. Most of the respondents were between 20 -22 years of age and only 4.7% were of 25 years of age. The average positive response for the knowledge-related statements was found to be 86.5% and the average positive response for the perception-related statements was found to be 70.67%. CONCLUSION: The findings showed adequate knowledge among pharmacy students and positive perception towards pharmacovigilance and ADRs reporting. This survey strongly suggests that there is a great need for increasing knowledge in clinical pharmacy courses and practical exposure to cases in the hospitals through internship programs which are meant to provide a unique opportunity for the pharmacy students that they must learn and practice the skills required for quality ADR reporting

Zeenath Banu

Pharmacogenetic determinants of human liver microsomal aminopyrine metabolism and the role of cytochrome p450 2d6

Aminopyrine (AM) has been used as a model substrate for investigation of drug metabolism. The major metabolic route is N-demethylation that was confirmed in liver microsomes. The aim of the present study was to identify the human cytochrome P-450 enzyme (CYP) mediating the N-demethylation of 4-di-methylaminoantipyrine (4-DMAA) to 4-methylaminoantipyrine (4-MAA). The contribution of human CYP to the metabolism of (4-DMAA) to (4-MAA) in human was investigated using virus expressed human CYP, human liver microsomes with chemical inhibition studies. The substrate of 4-dimethylaminantipyrine was employed at different concentrations (11.5, 23, 46, 115 and 230 µmol per l) with varying concentrations of selective inhibitors of CYP (CYP1A2), (CYP3A4), (CYP2C8),(CYP2A6), (CYP2D6), (CYP2C19) and (CYP1A1). 4-DMAA and 4-MAA were analysed by HPLC and enzyme kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) were calculated from the concentration data. The transformation of 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine to 4-methyaminoantipyrine by microsomes prepared from baculovirus-expressed human CYP was pronounced with CYP2D6. The metabolism of 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine was inhibited by 60.0% and 55.17% by a concentration of 100 µmo per l of the known CYP2D6 inhibitors quinidine and moclobemide. The corresponding Ki values were 0.050 and 0.11 mM, respectively. The corresponding IC50 values were 0.06 and 0.13 mM, respectively. The enzyme CYP2D6 apparently has an important role in N-demethyl-ation of 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Role of human liver microsomes in in vitro metabolism of metamizole

Metamizole or Novalgin® is a widely used well tolerated analgesic drug which is however compromised by agranulocytosis as adverse effect. Subsequent to nonenzymatic hydrolysis, the primary metabolic step is N-demethylation of 4-methylaminoantipyrine (4-MAA) to 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AA). The aim of the present study was to identify the human cytochrome P-450 enzyme (CYP) mediating this reaction. This study identified the relevant CYP using virus expressed isolated human CYP, human liver microsomes and rat liver microsomes with chemical inhibition studies. The substrate of 4-methylaminantipyrine was employed at six different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 400, 800 and 1200 µmol per l) with varying concentrations of selective inhibitors of CYP1A2 (furafylline, fluvoxamine), CYP3A4 (ketoconazole), CYP2A6 (coumarin), CYP2D6 (quinidine), CYP2C19 (omeprazole, fluvoxamine, tranylcypromine), CYP2C9 (sulphaphenazole) and CYP1A1 (alpha-naphthoflavone). 4-MAA and 4-AA were analyzed by HPLC and enzyme kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) were determined by regression (Sigma plot 9.0). The N-demethylation of 4-MAA by microsomes prepared from baculovirus expressing human CYP was pronounced with CYP2C19. Intrinsic clearance of the most active enzymes were 0.092, 0.027 and 0.026 for the CYP enzymes 2C19, 2D6 and 1A2, respectively. Metabolism by human liver microsomes was strongly inhibited by fluvoxamin, omeprazole and tranylcypromine (IC50 of 0.07, 0.07 and 0.18, respectively) but with coumarin, sulphaphenazole, ketoconazole, moclobemid, quinidine alpha-naphthoflavone and furafylline were 0.79, 1.20, 1.36, 1.44, 3.46, 4.68 and 8.41, respectively. The enzyme CYP2C19 apparently has an important role in N-demethylation of 4-methylaminoantipyrine which should be further analyzed in clinical studies and which may also be interesting concerning the agranulocytosis.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences