India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.
In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.
Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.
One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.
Ayurvedic formulations are of three types, Herbal, Mineral and Herbo-Mineral. Of which, Herbomineral is prepared either by Khalweeya or by Bhasmeekarana procedures. The quality of Bhasma depends on the number of putas given. Rasa Bhasma is one such kind of a Herbo-mineral preparation which can be obtained by Puta procedure as described in texts of Rasa Shastra. Though there are different procedures mentioned for preparation of Rasa Bhasma, maarana done with Gorvara puta seems to be an apt way to obtain the final product. Puta is the generalised way of heat application used during the pharmaceutical procedures of Rasa dravyas, where the purified organic Metal/Mineral is converted completely into powder form which can be absorbed easily into the body without causing any ill effects. Different types of Puta have been explained for bhasmeekarana of different metals and minerals. Among them, certain putas have been mentioned where Mandaagni plays a crucial role in Maarana (Incineration). These Mandaagniputas are in use of preparing certain Bhasmas like ShilajitBhasma, HaratalaBhasma, GouripashanaBhasma, and PaaradaBhasma. As these drugs are having relatively low boiling and melting points when compared to other dravyas, and are easy to evaporate when exposed to high temperatures, they need a standardized quantum of heat by which they can be transformed into Bhasma. Gorvara puta is one such kind where agni plays a major role in the preparation of Bhasma. So, the present study A Comprehensive Study of Gorvara Puta in Preparation of Rasa Bhasmahas has been under taken.
Rasa aushadhis are known for their uniqueness in curing the diseases with a very low dosage. These formulations are divided into two types based on their mode of preparation i.e., Single drug and Compound drug formulations. Based on their origin, the drugs are divided into three types, Herbal, Mineral and Animal. Any of these two or three together is combined to make a compound formulation. Apart from these, the other major factor which is needed for a formulation is the Rasa Panchaka of a Drug. Many of the formulations are being prepared based on their availability, keeping their Rasa Panchaka and Samprapti vighatana in mind. These formulations are designed in such a way that two or more drugs will be having one common quality, or Opposite Qualities or an Antidote of a particular Vishadravya, which can help in curing the disease. So an attempt is made to Review Tribhuvanakeerti Rasa with its Probable mode of action.
The current study is carried out to evaluate the antiemetic activity of methanol extracts of five leguminous plants leaves viz., Cassia siamea Lamk., Cyamopsis tetragonoloba Taubert., Delonix regia Rafin., Samanea saman Merr. and Vigna trilobata Verdc. at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight orally, using a chick emesis model. Emesis was induced in male chicks by the oral administration of copper sulphate (50 mg/Kg body weight). The antiemetic activity was determined by calculating the mean decrease in the number of retching as compare with the control. All the extracts showed antiemetic activity when compared with standard drug chlorpromazine (150 mg/kg body weight orally). Among all extracts, Delonix regia showed the highest (96.74%) and Cassia siamea lowest (18%) antiemetic activity.
The skin provides an effective barrier and only limited number of drugs can penetrate in adequate amounts. This study aims to identify the relationship between the physicochemical properties and permeation across mouse skin of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in view of their feasibility to transdermal delivery. Biphenylacetic acid, diclofenac base, diclofenac sodium, indomethacin and piroxicam are the drugs studied. Number of physicochemical properties studies were performed. Drug permeation studies across hairless mouse skin were carried out using an in-vitro finite dosing diffusion cell. The relationship between physicochemical properties of the drugs studied and their percutaneous penetration was studied. Purity for the compounds studied ranged from 99.09% to 100% in which 99.89% purity was obtained for diclofenac base. At 7.4, the % ionized of piroxicam was found to be 95.12%, while for other drugs were in the range of 98.01% and 99.96%. The true partition coefficient values in the n-octanol/water system are in the range of 1.85 and 2.85, while in the n-octanol/phosphate system ranged from 2.14 to 3.70. Observed solubility in water, phosphate buffer and n-octanol ranged from 0.033 to 0.322, 0.202 to 0.329 mg per ml, and 2.19 to 16.10 mg per ml, respectively. A linear relationship was found between water solubility and melting point between steady-state rates of permeation across intact and viable skin, between n-octanol solubility and maximum predicted flux and between molecular volume and the ratio of maximum predicted flux. Predicted flux calculated was compared with the experimental data which resulted in a high correlation. Physicochemical criteria which were determined the feasibility of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs studied for transdermal delivery were identified. The relationships obtained in this study provide an essential physical and chemical properties that govern transport of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs across hairless mouse skin.
In health care delivery systems, if you are not part of the solution, then you must be part of the problem. Over the last few decades, clinical pharmacy encourages pharmacists and pharmacy support staff to move their focus from product-oriented role towards new direct engagement with patients, to make the most of the benefits that patients obtain from the medicine they take, or the problems they encounter with their medicines use. In the USA, pharmacists’ participation in physicians ward rounds was shown to reduce adverse drug events by 78% and 66% in general medical and intensive care settings [1. 2]. A study covering 1 029 US hospitals indicated that centrally based and patient-specific clinical pharmacy services are associated with reduced mortality rates . The services involved were medicine information, clinical research performed by pharmacists, active pharmacist participation in resuscitation teams and pharmacists undertaking admission medication histories. New pharmacists’ roles in healthcare systems around the globe have moved and developed significantly over the past few years, particularly with expansion of the scope of practice which allows pharmacists to focus on the clinical aspects of direct patient care [4, 5]. Pharmacists are drug therapy experts of health care team. Therefore, pharmacists, today, are the arbiters of effective and safe use of medicines. Medication therapy management is one of the major areas in which physicians more and more rely on pharmacists to benefit their patients.
By January 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 has spread internationally to a pandemic that mainly targets the respiratory system. The relevant infectious disease has been identified as coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) by World Health Organization and declared as a global pandemic. In Libya, National Center for Disease Control reported the first case of coronavirus disease-2019 on 24th March, 2020. The authorities decided to close borders and activate designated treatment centers to deal with COVID-19 cases and contain the outbreak of SARS-COV-2. This study aimed to assess and evaluate the pharmaceutical situation of medications used in pharmacological management of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Tripoli, Libya. Three WHO availability indicators were selected to be studied and reported. A comprehensive list of medicines used in the management of hospitalized COVID-19 patients was constructed after reviewing and comparing seven national and international pharmacological management protocols and guidelines for hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This comparison revealed that nearly 50 medications are intended for use in COVID-19 inpatient pharmacological management. They all agreed about the use of three medications, representing one from each main class. This list was used to cross check their availability at the chosen designated COVID-19 treatment center. This study proved that local treatment center’s protocol is more in line with international guidelines than the national treatment guideline. The later was issued on March 2020. The Libyan National Essential Medicines’ List contained 25 out of 50 medications of the comprehensive list based on the last update in April 2019. This study recommends that national treatment guidelines and National Essential Medicines’ list require updating. Not all medications used in COVID-19 inpatient management were available in local treatment centers, although, the Emergency Management Department of Ministry of Health in Libya is responsible for the supply of the required medical supplies and medications to the COVID-19 treatment centers.