Pharmaceutics articles list

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

Study of temperature variation in human peripheral region during wound healing process due to plastic surgery

In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.

Manisha Jain

Metapuf: a challenge response pair generator

Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.

Abhishek Kumar

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

A comprehensive study of gorvara puta in preparation of rasa bhasma

Ayurvedic formulations are of three types, Herbal, Mineral and Herbo-Mineral. Of which, Herbomineral is prepared either by Khalweeya or by Bhasmeekarana procedures. The quality of Bhasma depends on the number of putas given. Rasa Bhasma is one such kind of a Herbo-mineral preparation which can be obtained by Puta procedure as described in texts of Rasa Shastra. Though there are different procedures mentioned for preparation of Rasa Bhasma, maarana done with Gorvara puta seems to be an apt way to obtain the final product. Puta is the generalised way of heat application used during the pharmaceutical procedures of Rasa dravyas, where the purified organic Metal/Mineral is converted completely into powder form which can be absorbed easily into the body without causing any ill effects. Different types of Puta have been explained for bhasmeekarana of different metals and minerals. Among them, certain putas have been mentioned where Mandaagni plays a crucial role in Maarana (Incineration). These Mandaagniputas are in use of preparing certain Bhasmas like ShilajitBhasma, HaratalaBhasma, GouripashanaBhasma, and PaaradaBhasma. As these drugs are having relatively low boiling and melting points when compared to other dravyas, and are easy to evaporate when exposed to high temperatures, they need a standardized quantum of heat by which they can be transformed into Bhasma. Gorvara puta is one such kind where agni plays a major role in the preparation of Bhasma. So, the present study A Comprehensive Study of Gorvara Puta in Preparation of Rasa Bhasmahas has been under taken.

Suri abhiram

A critical review on mode of action of ayurvedic formulations on jwara

Rasa aushadhis are known for their uniqueness in curing the diseases with a very low dosage. These formulations are divided into two types based on their mode of preparation i.e., Single drug and Compound drug formulations. Based on their origin, the drugs are divided into three types, Herbal, Mineral and Animal. Any of these two or three together is combined to make a compound formulation. Apart from these, the other major factor which is needed for a formulation is the Rasa Panchaka of a Drug. Many of the formulations are being prepared based on their availability, keeping their Rasa Panchaka and Samprapti vighatana in mind. These formulations are designed in such a way that two or more drugs will be having one common quality, or Opposite Qualities or an Antidote of a particular Vishadravya, which can help in curing the disease. So an attempt is made to Review Tribhuvanakeerti Rasa with its Probable mode of action.

Suri abhiram

Antiemetic activity of leaves extracts of five leguminous plants

The current study is carried out to evaluate the antiemetic activity of methanol extracts of five leguminous plants leaves viz., Cassia siamea Lamk., Cyamopsis tetragonoloba Taubert., Delonix regia Rafin., Samanea saman Merr. and Vigna trilobata Verdc. at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight orally, using a chick emesis model. Emesis was induced in male chicks by the oral administration of copper sulphate (50 mg/Kg body weight). The antiemetic activity was determined by calculating the mean decrease in the number of retching as compare with the control. All the extracts showed antiemetic activity when compared with standard drug chlorpromazine (150 mg/kg body weight orally). Among all extracts, Delonix regia showed the highest (96.74%) and Cassia siamea lowest (18%) antiemetic activity.

Dr. Salman Ahmed

Physicochemical properties and permeation across mouse skin of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

The skin provides an effective barrier and only limited number of drugs can penetrate in adequate amounts. This study aims to identify the relationship between the physicochemical properties and permeation across mouse skin of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in view of their feasibility to transdermal delivery. Biphenylacetic acid, diclofenac base, diclofenac sodium, indomethacin and piroxicam are the drugs studied. Number of physicochemical properties studies were performed. Drug permeation studies across hairless mouse skin were carried out using an in-vitro finite dosing diffusion cell. The relationship between physicochemical properties of the drugs studied and their percutaneous penetration was studied. Purity for the compounds studied ranged from 99.09% to 100% in which 99.89% purity was obtained for diclofenac base. At 7.4, the % ionized of piroxicam was found to be 95.12%, while for other drugs were in the range of 98.01% and 99.96%. The true partition coefficient values in the n-octanol/water system are in the range of 1.85 and 2.85, while in the n-octanol/phosphate system ranged from 2.14 to 3.70. Observed solubility in water, phosphate buffer and n-octanol ranged from 0.033 to 0.322, 0.202 to 0.329 mg per ml, and 2.19 to 16.10 mg per ml, respectively. A linear relationship was found between water solubility and melting point between steady-state rates of permeation across intact and viable skin, between n-octanol solubility and maximum predicted flux and between molecular volume and the ratio of maximum predicted flux. Predicted flux calculated was compared with the experimental data which resulted in a high correlation. Physicochemical criteria which were determined the feasibility of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs studied for transdermal delivery were identified. The relationships obtained in this study provide an essential physical and chemical properties that govern transport of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs across hairless mouse skin.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Novel clinical pharmacy practice: extended role and improved competencies

In health care delivery systems, if you are not part of the solution, then you must be part of the problem. Over the last few decades, clinical pharmacy encourages pharmacists and pharmacy support staff to move their focus from product-oriented role towards new direct engagement with patients, to make the most of the benefits that patients obtain from the medicine they take, or the problems they encounter with their medicines use. In the USA, pharmacists’ participation in physicians ward rounds was shown to reduce adverse drug events by 78% and 66% in general medical and intensive care settings [1. 2]. A study covering 1 029 US hospitals indicated that centrally based and patient-specific clinical pharmacy services are associated with reduced mortality rates [3]. The services involved were medicine information, clinical research performed by pharmacists, active pharmacist participation in resuscitation teams and pharmacists undertaking admission medication histories. New pharmacists’ roles in healthcare systems around the globe have moved and developed significantly over the past few years, particularly with expansion of the scope of practice which allows pharmacists to focus on the clinical aspects of direct patient care [4, 5]. Pharmacists are drug therapy experts of health care team. Therefore, pharmacists, today, are the arbiters of effective and safe use of medicines. Medication therapy management is one of the major areas in which physicians more and more rely on pharmacists to benefit their patients.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutical situation of the pharmacological treatment of hospitalized patients with covid-19 in libya

By January 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 has spread internationally to a pandemic that mainly targets the respiratory system. The relevant infectious disease has been identified as coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) by World Health Organization and declared as a global pandemic. In Libya, National Center for Disease Control reported the first case of coronavirus disease-2019 on 24th March, 2020. The authorities decided to close borders and activate designated treatment centers to deal with COVID-19 cases and contain the outbreak of SARS-COV-2. This study aimed to assess and evaluate the pharmaceutical situation of medications used in pharmacological management of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Tripoli, Libya. Three WHO availability indicators were selected to be studied and reported. A comprehensive list of medicines used in the management of hospitalized COVID-19 patients was constructed after reviewing and comparing seven national and international pharmacological management protocols and guidelines for hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This comparison revealed that nearly 50 medications are intended for use in COVID-19 inpatient pharmacological management. They all agreed about the use of three medications, representing one from each main class. This list was used to cross check their availability at the chosen designated COVID-19 treatment center. This study proved that local treatment center’s protocol is more in line with international guidelines than the national treatment guideline. The later was issued on March 2020. The Libyan National Essential Medicines’ List contained 25 out of 50 medications of the comprehensive list based on the last update in April 2019. This study recommends that national treatment guidelines and National Essential Medicines’ list require updating. Not all medications used in COVID-19 inpatient management were available in local treatment centers, although, the Emergency Management Department of Ministry of Health in Libya is responsible for the supply of the required medical supplies and medications to the COVID-19 treatment centers.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Liposomes as carriers in skin ageing

Ageing is an inevitable phenomenon. Similar to other organs, skin is also subject to an intrinsic ageing process. Additionally, skin ageing is also influenced by various environmental factors. Existing conventional formulations have limited efficacy because skin serves as a rate limiting barrier for percutaneous absorption of drugs. This has led to the evolution of various novel drug delivery systems. Among these liposomes have received considerable attention due to the numerous advantages they offer. Liposomes, submicroscopic spherical vesicles, were discovered in 1960’s. Since then, they have gained popularity as potential carriers for drugs, diagnostics, nutrients, vaccines and other bioactive agents. Liposomes find applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and other industrial fields. Various topical actives that have been found to be efficacious in delaying the signs of ageing have been formulated as liposomes resulting in enhanced delivery, biocompatibility, and reduced toxicity. This review focusses on therapeutic use of liposomes in skin ageing.

Aparajita Varshney

Mechanism of ibuprofen release from chitosan granules

Attempts have been made to formulate controlled release drug dosage forms using chitosan as a release controlling polymer. Granules of combination of chitosan, hydroxylpropyl cellulose, lactose, starch and Ibuprofen were prepared by wet granulation method using 1.0% lactic acid solution. The granules were physico-chemically characterized in terms of density, porosity, angle of repose, carr’s index and housner ratio and was found to be free flowing with good compressibility. FTIR spectroscopy was used and confirmed that there is no interaction between the drug and the added polymers. In vitro release of Ibuprofen, in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4, showed a steady and slow increase in the percentage of drug released over 24 hours as the percentage of chitosan was increased in the formulations compared to that from commercial tablets which released over 80.0% of their content in only two hours. The kinetic analysis using different mathematical models of the data revealed that the release kinetics of the drug form these formulations is somewhere between diffusion controlled, Fickian (anomalous) and non-Fickian which refers to a combination of diffusion and erosion controlled release. Thus, the high correlation coefficient of the data of drug release from most granules when zero order kinetics was applied revealed that there is a constant drug release with time for 24 hours.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Hepatoprotective activity of glinus lotodies linn against paracetamol induced liver damage in albino rats

Aim: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the chloroform extract of the selected Glinus lotodies linn plant by using Paracetamol induced hepatic injury in albino rats. Methods: The chloroform extract of Glinus lotodies linn was allowed for screening hepatoprotective activity on Paracetamol induced Albino rats and they were compared with standard and negative control. Results: The drug treatment Chloroform Extract of Glinus lotodies linn [CEGL] was carried out at two low dose levels 200mg and 400mg/ kg, both of which along the standard Silymarin 100mg/kg treated group showed a significant reduction in the elevated enzyme levels (P < 0.01). Liver section shows normal cells compared to control. Conclusion: These data suggests a dose dependent hepatoprotective activity of CEGL. At the end of this study, a strong conclusion can be drawn that the Chloroform Extract of Glinus lotoides linn possess hepatoprotective activities induced by Paracetamol in Albino rats.

Sudha Rameshwari.K Assistant Professor

Anti-ulcer activity of psidium guajava on pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in albino rats

The present study deals with the phytochemical analysis and evaluation of antibacterial activity of hydroalcohol, acetone, and hexane extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava. The antimicrobial activity was measured by the agar well diffusion method. Gastric volume, pH, total and free acidity and the ulcerative index was also measured in hydroalcoholic extract of Psidium guajava on gastric ulcer pyloric ligation in rat. Glycosides, terpenoids, and tannins are only present in the hydro alcohol extract. The extracts are tested against gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) bacterial strains. The zone of inhibition against microorganisms is direct proportional to the concentration of extract. Maximum zone of inhibition (24mm) against Staphylococcus aureus except hexane extract was seen. Psidium guajava leaves show maximum phytochemicals compounds and inhibition of microorganisms in hydroalcoholic extract. So the hydroalcoholic extraction was used for anti-ulcer activity. The present study was performed in pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer model in albino rats in which the ability of hydroalcoholic extracts of Psidium guajava was tested at a dose level of 400 mg/kg body weight orally and compared with Ranitidine (10 mg/kg) as standard. From the results it is concluded hydro alcohol leaf extracts of Psidium guajava 400 mg/kg dose level showed significant anti-ulcer activity when compared to that of standard drug.

Sudha Rameshwari.K Assistant Professor

Evaluation of some metformin hydrochloride brands available in the libyan market

Various quality control tests are employed for solid dosage forms such as uniformity, dissolution and drug contents in order to assess their pharmaceutical equivalence. The objective of the current study was to assess and contrast five distinct metformin hydrochloride brands that are offered for sale in the Libyan market. The physicochemical equivalence of the five brands of metformin hydrochloride tablets (500 mg) were determined through the evaluation of official and non-official standards according to the USP including uniformity of weight, friability, hardness, dissolution rate and drug content. All the examined brands available in the Libyan market passed the official weight variation, friability, dissolution and disintegration tests and were equivalent. The friability test was found within the specified limit. All the formulations were disintegrated within 09 - 15 min. The tested brands were non-equivalent to the innovator Glucophage® according to their dissolution evaluation. The percentage content of the active ingredient of five brands of metformin tablets showed values within the monograph specifications (95% - 105%). In conclusion, all the five brands available in the Libyan market which were evaluated in this study cannot be substituted with the innovator product in clinical practice.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Impact of pharmaceutical care intervention on health-related quality of life in hemodialysis patients in benghazi

Hemodialysis patients suffer from poor health-related quality of life which results in a higher risk of hospitalization and mortality. This study investigates the importance of pharmaceutical care and role of pharmacist for hemodialysis patients to optimize drug therapy, minimize drug related problems and thereby improving their health-related quality of life. The study was conducted to evaluate the impact of pharmaceutical care interventions on health-related quality of life of hemodialysis patients in Benghazi, Libya. Randomized control study was carried out after getting an ethical approval from the committee of the hospital. Health-related quality of life was assessed using SF-36 instrument for all the patients (n = 80). Among them, 40 patients were received the normal care along with brief medication review and counselled by pharmacists for two months. Then, health-related quality of life was assessed again for those 40 patients who received the pharmaceutical care. Data was analyzed using an appropriate methods. The results showed that the quality of life for hemodialysis patients was poor in both physical and emotional aspects. After implementation of appropriate pharmaceutical care to the patients, their quality of life improved significantly. Health-related quality of life is an important determinant of treatment effectiveness in dialysis patients

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Stability study of liquid paraffin oral emulsion (cremaffin)

Stability studies ensuring the maintenance of product quality, safety and efficacy throughout the shelf life are considered as pre-requisite for the acceptance and approval of any pharmaceutical product. These studies are required to be conducted in a planned way following the guideline issused by ICH, WHO and or other agencies. Importance of various methods followed for stability testing of pharmaceutical products, guideline issued for stability testing and other aspects related to stability of pharmaceutical products have been presented in a present review.

Prachi Barbhaiya

A case report on young adult with wilsons disease

Wilsons disease is a rare inherited disorder which is characterized by impaired copper excretion which leads to excessive deposition of copper in many tissues and organs like brain, liver, and eye. This is also characterized by Kaiser-Fleischer ring, low serum ceruloplasmin levels and elevated urinary copper excretion [1]. A 26year male patient came to the neurology department with chief complaints of involuntary tremors of both hands and difficulty in walking in the last one month associated with swaying to one side in the last 20 days. On examination the patient is having Kaiser-Fleisher ring positive and upon further investigation Magnetic resonance imaging brain was performed which revealed the features in favor of Wilson’s disease. And for this condition the patient is treated with chelating agents and benzodiazepines. Key words: Wilson’s Disease, Kaiser- Fleisher ring, Chelating agents

Dr VENKATA RAMA RAO NALLANI