Pharmaceutical Analysis articles list

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

Study of temperature variation in human peripheral region during wound healing process due to plastic surgery

In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.

Manisha Jain

Metapuf: a challenge response pair generator

Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.

Abhishek Kumar

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

A comprehensive study of gorvara puta in preparation of rasa bhasma

Ayurvedic formulations are of three types, Herbal, Mineral and Herbo-Mineral. Of which, Herbomineral is prepared either by Khalweeya or by Bhasmeekarana procedures. The quality of Bhasma depends on the number of putas given. Rasa Bhasma is one such kind of a Herbo-mineral preparation which can be obtained by Puta procedure as described in texts of Rasa Shastra. Though there are different procedures mentioned for preparation of Rasa Bhasma, maarana done with Gorvara puta seems to be an apt way to obtain the final product. Puta is the generalised way of heat application used during the pharmaceutical procedures of Rasa dravyas, where the purified organic Metal/Mineral is converted completely into powder form which can be absorbed easily into the body without causing any ill effects. Different types of Puta have been explained for bhasmeekarana of different metals and minerals. Among them, certain putas have been mentioned where Mandaagni plays a crucial role in Maarana (Incineration). These Mandaagniputas are in use of preparing certain Bhasmas like ShilajitBhasma, HaratalaBhasma, GouripashanaBhasma, and PaaradaBhasma. As these drugs are having relatively low boiling and melting points when compared to other dravyas, and are easy to evaporate when exposed to high temperatures, they need a standardized quantum of heat by which they can be transformed into Bhasma. Gorvara puta is one such kind where agni plays a major role in the preparation of Bhasma. So, the present study A Comprehensive Study of Gorvara Puta in Preparation of Rasa Bhasmahas has been under taken.

Suri abhiram

A critical review on mode of action of ayurvedic formulations on jwara

Rasa aushadhis are known for their uniqueness in curing the diseases with a very low dosage. These formulations are divided into two types based on their mode of preparation i.e., Single drug and Compound drug formulations. Based on their origin, the drugs are divided into three types, Herbal, Mineral and Animal. Any of these two or three together is combined to make a compound formulation. Apart from these, the other major factor which is needed for a formulation is the Rasa Panchaka of a Drug. Many of the formulations are being prepared based on their availability, keeping their Rasa Panchaka and Samprapti vighatana in mind. These formulations are designed in such a way that two or more drugs will be having one common quality, or Opposite Qualities or an Antidote of a particular Vishadravya, which can help in curing the disease. So an attempt is made to Review Tribhuvanakeerti Rasa with its Probable mode of action.

Suri abhiram

Development and validation of stability indicating analytical method for simultaneous estimation of miconazole and ornidazole in their combined marketed dosage form

A simple, precise, accurate, sensitive, specific and reliable stability indicating RP-HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Miconazole (MIC) and Ornidazole (ORN) in pharmaceutical dosage form. The method was developed with mobile phase containing buffer (0.05M potassium dihydrogen ortho phosphate, ph3.5): Methanol in the ratio of 25:75, C18 (250 x 4.6mm, 5µm) as a stationary phase and flow rate was 1 ml/min. Detection was carried out at 236nm in UV-2000 detector. The selected chromatographic conditions were found effectively to separate Miconazole and Ornidazole at 6.58 and 3.26 min respectively. The proposed method has been validated for precision, accuracy, robustness. Thus, the statistical analysis confirms that developed methods were successfully used for analysis of formulation and thereby can be used for routine analysis of drugs in Quality Control laboratories.

Prachi Barbhaiya

Recent approches of" impurity profiling" in pharmaceutical analysis: a review

Impurity is something that is impure or makes something else impure. An impure substance may be defined as follows: a substance of interest mixed or impregnated with an extraneous or usually inferior substance, from the standpoint of its usage, the drug substance is compromised in terms of purity even if it contains another material with superior pharmacological or toxicological properties. The impurity may be developed either during formulation, or upon aging of both API’s and formulated API’s in medicines. The presence of these unwanted chemicals, even in small amount, may influence the efficacy and safety of the pharmaceutical products. The impurities are not necessarily always inferior. Highly sophisticated instrumentation, such as mass spectra meters attached to a Gas Chromatography or HPLC, are inevitable tools in the identification of minor components (drugs, impurities, degradation products, metabolites) in various matrices. Present article reveals different impurities found in the API’s, methods for identifying them and the possible measures to deal with the interferences caused by them in pharmaceutical analysis.

Prasanna Pradhan

Uv spectrophotometric determination of cefixime in bulk and its dosage form

A novel, simple, accurate, sensitive, reproducible, economical and less time consuming spectroscopic method was developed and validated for determination of cefixime. The solvent used was 0.1 N HCL and the absorbance maxima or the λmax was found to be 283.0 nm and 303nm for zero order and first order derivative respectively. This method obeyes Beer’s Law for the concentration range of 8–16 µg/ml for cefixime. The proposed method was been validated statistically as per the ICH guidelines for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, LOD and LOQ. The method developed and validated successfully for the quantitative analysis of cefixime in bulk and dosage form.

Prasanna Pradhan

Development and validation of rp-hplc method for simultaneous estimation of levocloperastine fendizoate and chlorpheniramine maleate in their combined dosage form

A simple and rapid RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Levocloperastine fendizoate and Chlorpheniramine maleate syrup formulation. Resolution of the analytes was achieved within 10min, employing a mixture of 10mM mobile phase Buffer (pH 6.5): Acetonitrile (50:50, % v/v) as isocratic mobile phase, pumped at 1.0mL/ min through a C18 column (5μm particle size). The detection wavelength for the analytes was 227nm. The system suitability parameters were found to be acceptable. The linearity of response (r2>0.999) in the appropriate ranges (from 50% up to 150% of the expected concentrations of the analytes in the formulations), method accuracy (RSD<2.0%), repeatability and intermediate precision (RSD<2.0%), were confirmed. Robustness result indicates that the methods performance can withstand small variations in method parameters. Satisfactory results obtained in terms of analyte recovery and RSD, while analyzing marketed pharmaceutical preparations. Hence the method can be useful for regular analysis of this combination in marketed syrup formulation.

Prasanna Pradhan

Effect ofco-administration of emblica officinalis and aegle marmelos extracts for antioxidant and antidiabetic activity

ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of the present study was to develop an HPLC analytical method and to perform in vivo study of Emblica officinalis and Aegle marmelos extracts for antioxidant and antidiabetic activity. Methods: The phytochemical analyses, total phenolic content (TPC), TLC, DPPH assay were performed for freeze-dried Emblica officinalis fruits aqueous extract (EOFAE) and Aegle marmelos leaves ethyl acetate extract (AMLEAE). The active constituents present in both extracts were estimated by using HPLC system having Hibar® Results: Tannins, saponins, carbohydrate, glycosides are found in EOFAE; coumarins and flavonoids are found in AMLEAE and quinones, phenols are present in both extracts. The values of TPC present in standard gallic acid, EOFAE and AMLEAE were found to be 485.7, 315.6, 300.7 mgGAE/g, respectively. R C18 column [250 x4.6 mm, 5 µm] and UV detector (264 nm). A gradient mobile phase (acetonitrile and water with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) was used at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. In vivo antioxidant, antidiabetic activity of both extracts was conducted on male albino Wistar rats for 21 d in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (42 rats; n=6). The antidiabetic activity was measured by blood glucose level and biochemical parameters i.e. total cholesterol, triglycerides and total protein. Oxidative stress was measured by antioxidant biomarkers i.e. SOD, GSH, lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method on the liver of the experimental rat. f Conclusion: The present study showed that the EOFAE and AMLEAE treated group III with (EOAM) low dose of 500 mg/kg body weight has potent antioxidant and antidiabetic activity. values obtained by TLC of EOFAE and AMLEAE were found to be 0.41 and 0.50, respectively. The values of % inhibition shown by EOFAE and AMLEAE in DPPH assay were found to be 97.8%±2 and 95.2%±2, respectively. The values of retention time of EOFAE and AMLEAE by HPLC analysis were found to be 4.59 and 5.28 min, respectively. Histopathological examination of the liver was revealed that low dose EOAM (containing of EOFAE 250+AMLEAE 250 mg/kg body weight) administered once a daily for 21 d showed significant activity (P˂0.001) with biochemical parameters and antioxidant biomarkers. Keywords: Emblica officinalis, Aegle marmelos, Antioxidant, Antidiabetic activity, streptozotocin, HPLC

Snehal

Method development and validation for simulataneous estimation of albendazole and praziquantel in bulk and in a synthetic mixture

A simple, rapid, sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for simultaneous measurement of albendazole and praziquantel with an internal standard, simvastatin, at single wavelength of 225 nm. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Enable C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm: Spinco Biotech Pvt Ltd) and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile:water (60:40, v/v) with 10% orthophosphoric acid to adjust the pH to 3.2, at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The calibration curve was linear (r2 ≥ 0.999) over the concentration range 0.05–8.0 μg/ml. The concentrations of simvastatin was 1.0 μg/ml. The limit of quantification was 0.05 μg/ml for both albendazole and praziquantel. No interference was found by the excipients in the synthetic mixture. The proposed methods were validated as per International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness for estimation of albendazole and praziquantel in bulk and in a synthetic mixture, and the results were found to be satisfactory.

Prasanna Pradhan

Trace elements in blood of leukemia patients

Trace elements are minerals present in living tissues in small amounts. Some of them are known to be nutritionally essential, others may be essential, and the remainder are considered to be nonessential. Trace elements such as zinc, copper, selenium, iron, chromium and, others are essential elements for growth and body health. They form an integral part of many enzymes and bioactive centers that are responsible for biochemical reactions such as metabolism, protein and, DNA synthesis. They are said to contribute to the development of cancer based on epidemiologic evidence. The blood level of trace elements in the human body is affected by cancer and drug treatment. The low trace elements level is a sign of leukemia patients, where cancer cells consume body nutrients and essential elements for growth. The Libyan patients were divided into four age groups and were either newly or old diagnosed with leukemia, including patients with acute leukocyte leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and aplastic anemia. The samples were tested for direct aspiration onto inductively coupled plasma spectrometry at specific wave lengths. The findings showed the blood level of trace elements in leukemia patients is lower than in the healthy individuals. A negative correlation between copper and zinc levels in leukemia patients was found. The copper level increases in leukemia patients as they get older.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Modulation of tcdd induced cyp1a1 mrna by the co-repressor smrt

Environmental factors are known to influence carcinogenesis. Pollutants, such as heterocyclic amines (HAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are examples of environmental borne procarcinogens. Procarcinogens are not active carcinogens although, they require bio-activation, via enzymes such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) to transform to active product. CYP1A1 isoform, regulated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays a significant role in the bio-activation of PAHs and HAs. AhR has multiple co-activators and co-repressors for AhR that have been identified S remarkably. Silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) was designated as a major co-repressor for AhR. In the present study, it is examined the effect of SMRT over expression on the cyp1a1 mRNA levels in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cell line. Hepa 1c1c7 cells were maintained in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and competent cells have successfully been produced using calcium chloride method. Cells were transformed using plasmid DNA and Lipofectamine. TCDD (2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) was employed as an inducing agent for CYP1A1. The total cellular RNA was isolated and real-time PCR of Cyp1a1 was conducted. A statistical analysis was conducted by using one-way analysis of variance followed by Student-Newman-Keuls test. The results showed that cells transfected with the co-repressor SMRT has lower TCDD-mediated induction of cyp1a1 mRNA without affecting constitutive Cyp1a1 mRNA levels, i.e., SMRT was able to significantly decrease inducible Cyp1a1 mRNA levels in Hepa 1c1c7 cells. The present findings also demonstrated that calcium chloride is a convenient method for routine transformation. Thus, this study opens a new avenue for the management of carcinogenesis involving CYP1A1 inducing carcinogens.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Quality control of selected cosmetics marketed in libya for traces of toxic heavy metals: urgent need of guidelines harmonization

Heavy metals and trace elements such as lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (Ar), nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), mercury (Mg), iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) are detected in various types of herbal cosmetics. Heavy metals and elements can accumulate at high concentrations causing serious risks to human health when consumed. In this study, the levels of potential heavy metals of Pb, Ar, Cd, and Ni were quantitatively determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Samples of Henna leaves, Henna paste, Khol stones and baby Talcum powder were collected randomly from different public markets of Tripoli city. The results were evaluated by using different international guidelines, US-FDA, EU regulation, German (BVL), World Health Organization (WHO) and Canadian Guidelines. Because of controversial global guidelines, the study urgent the ultimate need for setting up harmonized minimum levels of heavy metals in cosmetics that could be applicable worldwide. Generally, the presence of a higher concentration of some of the studied heavy metals was observed, and the effect of these heavy metals at higher levels will be more harmful to consumer health after prolonged usage. In conclusion, nationally, the need for developing and updating the national specification for cosmetics by the Libyan National Centre for Standardization and Metrology (LNCSM) to protect consumers from more catastrophic cosmetic hazards is urgently required.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences