India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.
In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.
Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.
One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.
The 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is spreading worldwide, with a spectacular increase in death missing any effective therapeutic treatment up to now. Molecular docking is a recognized computational tool to assist in early drug discovery and development. Molecular docking analysis was carried out using 2-(4-(aminomethyl)phenyl)isoindoline-1,3-dione Schiff base conjugates with SARS-CoV-2 protease enzyme and COVID-19 main protease in apo form 6M03). The compounds with the best normalized docking scores to protease enzyme (6LU7) were ARG3 (-8.1 kcal/mole), ARG7 (-8.1 kcal/mole) and ARG6 (-8.0 kcal/mole). The best docking ligands for main protease in apo form (6M03) were ARG7 (-8.7 kcal/mole), ARG6 (-8.6 kcal/mole) and ARG3 (-8.4 kcal/mole). The structural similarity between these conjugates inspired us to perform in silico studies to check their possible binding interactions with essential SARS-CoV-2 proteins. These studies provide insight into the potential binding between Schiff base derivatives and SARS-CoV-2 proteins to provide an insight for finding an effective therapy. Finally, ADMET calculations were performed for the Schiff base compounds to predict their pharmacokinetic profiles.
Aminopyrine (AM) has been used as a model substrate for investigation of drug metabolism. The major metabolic route is N-demethylation that was confirmed in liver microsomes. The aim of the present study was to identify the human cytochrome P-450 enzyme (CYP) mediating the N-demethylation of 4-di-methylaminoantipyrine (4-DMAA) to 4-methylaminoantipyrine (4-MAA). The contribution of human CYP to the metabolism of (4-DMAA) to (4-MAA) in human was investigated using virus expressed human CYP, human liver microsomes with chemical inhibition studies. The substrate of 4-dimethylaminantipyrine was employed at different concentrations (11.5, 23, 46, 115 and 230 µmol per l) with varying concentrations of selective inhibitors of CYP (CYP1A2), (CYP3A4), (CYP2C8),(CYP2A6), (CYP2D6), (CYP2C19) and (CYP1A1). 4-DMAA and 4-MAA were analysed by HPLC and enzyme kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) were calculated from the concentration data. The transformation of 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine to 4-methyaminoantipyrine by microsomes prepared from baculovirus-expressed human CYP was pronounced with CYP2D6. The metabolism of 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine was inhibited by 60.0% and 55.17% by a concentration of 100 µmo per l of the known CYP2D6 inhibitors quinidine and moclobemide. The corresponding Ki values were 0.050 and 0.11 mM, respectively. The corresponding IC50 values were 0.06 and 0.13 mM, respectively. The enzyme CYP2D6 apparently has an important role in N-demethyl-ation of 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine.
The goal of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms that underlie heart andskeletal muscle damage in male Wistar rats weighing 200–250 g in response to a 3-h exposure to 180 mm Hg(5% O2) in the model of severe hypobaric hypoxia. It has been demonstrated that the level of the cardiac bio-marker troponin I in the blood plasma of rats exposed to severe hypobaric hypoxia for 3 h increased signifi-cantly compared to the control group, indicating myocardial injury. At the same time, the administration ofthe HIF-1α transcription factor inhibitor did not affect the plasma level of troponin I. In contrast, the releaseof the non-specific biomarker myoglobin into the bloodstream did not increase in response to hypoxia com-pared to the control animals. In addition, 24 h after the exposure to severe hypobaric hypoxia the serum myo-globin level was significantly lower in animals administered with the HIF-1α inhibitor topotecan than in ratsthat did not receive topotecan. Therefore, it may be assumed that the inhibition of the HIF-1α transcriptionfactor 10 min before exposure to severe hypobaric hypoxia reduces skeletal muscle damage. The mechanismsthat affect the adaptation of heart and skeletal muscles to hypoxia are discussed.