Microbiology articles list

Bacterial load on suture material after surgical removal of third molars – a comparative clinical studies between silk suture vs antibacterial suture

Oral cavity harbors a complex network of microorganisms which are in steady state of equilibrium with another microflora. Surgical removal of third molar is a very common procedure in oral surgery and suturing of surgical site is a crucial component determining success of wound healing. These suture materials sometime act a nidus of infection because of potential adherence of bacteria to its rough surfaces which may lead to surgical site infection. AIM- The aim of this study was to compare bacterial load on normal silk suture over antibacterial suture following third molar removal in 50 healthy individuals free of any systemic and local pathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS – A microbiological analysis using culture sensitivity test of distal most suture was evaluated after 7 days of procedure. RESULT - In relation to the colony count silk group showed higher number of colonization with a median of 80,000 cfu/ml. Relatively on the other side, antibacterial showed significant decrease in number of colonization with a median of 11,000 cfu/ml (p value < 0.0005). CONCLUSION – Antibacterial sutures group showed statistically significant reduction in bacterial count and can be possible alternative in patients who are unable to maintain good oral hygiene.

Manish Anand

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

A comparative study of social and economic aspect of migration

India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.

Ekta Meena

Study of temperature variation in human peripheral region during wound healing process due to plastic surgery

In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.

Manisha Jain

Metapuf: a challenge response pair generator

Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.

Abhishek Kumar

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

Intersection of caste and gender based subjugation

One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.

Swati sharma

Occurrence of haemoparasites in cattle slaughtered at jalingo abattoir, north-eastern nigeria

Livestock plays a significant role in the economy of a nation but its productivity can be hampered by numerous haemoparasites thereby leading to economic losses to the livestock industry. The prevalence of haemoparasite in cattle slaughtered at the Jalingo abattoir was investigated. A total of four hundred blood samples were collected at the point of slaughter, processed, and screened for haemoparasites by examining Giemsa-stained thin blood smears. An overall prevalence of 12.25% was recorded. Four haemoparasites of cattle with prevalence rates of 5.0%, 6.75%, 0.25%, and 0.25% for Anaplasma, Babesia, Microfilaria and Trypanosoma respectively were observed. The prevalence of haemoparasite in relation to sex, revealed higher infection in females (13.75%) than in males (10.0%) which were not found statistically different (P > 0.05). All breeds encountered during the study were infected with haemoparasites with the highest prevalence of 13.91 % recorded in White Fulani, Red Bororo (10.94%), and Sokoto Gudali (10.00 %), while Adamawa Gudali had the least prevalence of 0.5%. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of haemoparasite in relation to breeds (P > 0.05). High prevalence was observed in the young (14.29%) more than the adult (11.59%) and older (12.14%). The current study has revealed the haemoparasites status in cattle slaughtered at Jalingo abattoir. Therefore, there is a need for effective preventive and control policy of these haemoparasites to enhance livestock productivity

Bitrus Inuwa

Upsurge in the incidence of scabies (a neglected tropical disease) in some rural communities of southeast nigeria: any nexus with climate change?

Background: Scabies is characterized by the presence of burrows, erythematous papules, and generalized pruritus which is usually worse at night. Recently an upsurge in the incidence of scabies has been reported in many settings, including the area of the study. The study aimed to determine if there is a nexus between scabies and climate change as a risk factor. Methods: This was a case-control study carried out in a Cottage Hospital. Case files of 18, 000 patients who attended the hospital between 2016 and 2019 were reviewed. The diagnosis was mainly clinical, i.e. based on the presence of itching in the typical scabies locations, presence of scabies burrows and history of similar itching in the other members of the patient’s household. 112 cases of scabies were diagnosed within this period. Results: From 2016 to 2019, the incidence of scabies rose from 3 to 50. Prevalence among males was 59.8%, and in females 40.2%, although the difference was not significant (p=0.0.53). Compared to other age groups, prevalence was highest in the 6-17 years age group (37.5%), but the difference among the age groups was also not significant (p=0.84). Conclusions: Within four years (2016-2019), the incidence of scabies had risen from 3 to 50 in the area of the study, being higher in males (59.8%) than females (40.2%), and in children less than 18 years (37.5%). Community survey, prompt diagnosis, adequate treatment and avoidance of overcrowding might help to stem the observed rising incidence of the disease.

Emmanuel Umegbolu

Sero-prevalence of salmonella typhi antibodies among adult residents of some selected rural communities of abia and enugu states, southeast nigeria: a cross-sectional study

Background: Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) antibodies may be considered as biomarkers of typhoid fever, a severe febrile systemic illness caused by an invasive Gram-negative Bacterium S. typhi. Worldwide, about 21-26.9 million cases of typhoid fever and 200 000-215 000 deaths, occur annually. Between 2003 and 2005, statistics have shown a rising trend in the incidence of typhoid fever in Abia and Enugu States. The aim of the study was to determine the sero-prevalence of S. typhi antibodies in some rural communities of Abia and Enugu States as proxy indicators of prevalence typhoid fever (TF) in the two states. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of the sero-prevalence of S. typhi antibodies in ten rural communities of Umunneochi Local Government Area (LGA) of Abia State and Ezeagu LGA of Enugu State using 421 (200 in Abia and 221 in Enugu) blood samples for the Widal test to determine the titres of these antibodies. Results: In the Abia communities the mean sero-prevalence of S. typhi antibodies was 68.2%, while in Enugu it was 87.1%. Between the two states, difference in the sero-prevalence of S. typhi antibodies was significant (p=0.03). Conclusions: The sero-prevalence of S. typhi antibodies was higher (87.1%) in the Enugu communities, compared to the Abia communities (68.2%). To reduce the incidence and prevalence of TF in the communities, access to safe domestic water, improved sanitation and good food hygiene needs to be improved. Health-seeking behaviour also needs improvement.

Emmanuel Umegbolu

Rapid diagnostic test versus microscopy in the diagnosis of acute malaria in a district hospital in enugu state, southeast nigeria

Background: Malaria is a systemic disease caused by various species of Plasmodium, transmitted through the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. According to the World Health Organisation, there were 214 million cases of malaria worldwide in 2015. Nigeria’s burden of malaria is about 51million cases and 207,000 deaths annually, accounting for 60% of outpatient visits to hospitals, 11% of maternal mortality, and 30% of child mortality. The study aimed to compare RDT and microscopy in malaria diagnosis in a District Hospital in Enugu state, Southeast Nigeria. Methods: Blood samples of 300 suspected cases of acute malaria were tested for malaria parasite using RDT and microscopy simultaneously. Results: In 2017, the study found a malaria prevalence of 25% (46.2% in children, and 18.1% in adults) in Awgu. RDT was positive in 38% and microscopy in 70.3% of cases. Both RDT and microscopy were positive in 36.3%, negative in 28.3%, and discordant in 35.4%. Sensitivity of RDT was 50.7% (89.4% in children, and 25.6% in adults). RDT had a specificity of 100% (both children and adults), positive predictive value of 1 (both children and adults), and negative predictive value of 0.6 (0.5 in children, 0.6 in adults). Conclusions: RDT (SD Malaria Ag P. f) had more sensitivity in children (89.4%) than adults (25.6%), and the occurrence of false negative results was more in adults (46.8%) than children (9.5%). All negative RDT results need to be examined microscopically, to rule out false negative cases.

Emmanuel Umegbolu

Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains obtained from hospital infections with various resistances in tehran, iran

Objectives: Improper and inappropriate use of antibiotics is one of the possible factors affecting the transmission of antibiotic resistance is Because Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most serious pathogenic bacteria in hospital environments and resistant It is an antibiotic that causes problems in treatment. This study aims to determine multiple resistances Pseudomonas has been treated with antibiotics, arsenic and metals. Materials and Methods: In this study, 23 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from clinical specimens. for review Resistance of these bacteria to penicillin antibiotics was used by Kirby-Bauer method. The minimum concentration C.I.M. (and minimum lethal concentrations (C.B.M.) of antibiotics and heavy metals (cadmium, mercury) and arsenate Tubal dilution, agar and growth were performed in agar plate, respectively. Results: In this study, the highest and lowest MIC values obtained in Pseudomonas aeruginosa for metals, respectively. * 8 and 3 cadmiums (0.6 and 4.9 μg / ml), mercury (<0.12 and 4 μg / ml) and arsenate (10 × were 256 μg / ml). Of 23 strains, 84% to the antibiotic carbonicillin, 63% to piperacillin and 100% to 103 Arsenic and cadmium were resistant. Also, 82.6% of the strains were resistant to mercury. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains have multiple resistance to arsenic, metals and the antibiotics are car penicillin and piperacillin.

Amirhossein jahromi

Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains obtained from hospital infections with various resistances in tehran, iran

Objectives: Improper and inappropriate use of antibiotics is one of the possible factors affecting the transmission of antibiotic resistance is Because Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most serious pathogenic bacteria in hospital environments and resistant It is an antibiotic that causes problems in treatment. This study aims to determine multiple resistances Pseudomonas has been treated with antibiotics, arsenic and metals. Materials and Methods: In this study, 23 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from clinical specimens. for review Resistance of these bacteria to penicillin antibiotics was used by Kirby-Bauer method. The minimum concentration C.I.M. (and minimum lethal concentrations (C.B.M.) of antibiotics and heavy metals (cadmium, mercury) and arsenate Tubal dilution, agar and growth were performed in agar plate, respectively. Results: In this study, the highest and lowest MIC values obtained in Pseudomonas aeruginosa for metals, respectively. * 8 and 3 cadmiums (0.6 and 4.9 μg / ml), mercury (<0.12 and 4 μg / ml) and arsenate (10 × were 256 μg / ml). Of 23 strains, 84% to the antibiotic carbonicillin, 63% to piperacillin and 100% to 103 Arsenic and cadmium were resistant. Also, 82.6% of the strains were resistant to mercury. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains have multiple resistance to arsenic, metals and the antibiotics are car penicillin and piperacillin.

Amirhossein jahromi

Strain improvement studies for the production of l-asparaginase by beauveria bassiana ss18/41

Strain improvement studies were conducted for the production of L-asparaginase from a marine fungus Beauveriabassiana SS18/14 by employing physical and chemical mutagens, in a systemic manner to obtain mutants that have higher L-asparaginase production. The wild strain produced 6.32 IU/mL of L-asparaginase activity while the UV mutant UVF-4 yielded 8.34 IU/mL and nitrous acid mutant UVF4-N-2 exhibited 10.44 IU/mL enzyme activity. The overall strain improvement programme increased L-asparaginase activity 1.65 times with respect to the parent wild strain.

Dr.P.V.Kamala Kumari

Development of modern tools for environmental monitoring of pathogens and toxicant

Environmental monitoring is required to protect our surrounding from contamination, especially bacteria, virus, and parasitic pathogens & their toxins as well as chemical substances that can be released into a air, soil, and water create serious public health concerns. Presently, traditional methods more popular for the detection of pathogens and its toxins, but they have several limitations due to low concentrations and interference with various enzymatic inhibitors in the environmental samples. This chapter describes the current state of modern tools, the advantages over conventional detection methods, and the challenges due to testing of environmental samples. Future trends in the development of novel detection devices and their importance, use over other environmental monitoring methodologies are also discussed.

Shalini Purwar

A comparative study of garlic antibacterial activity

This comparative study was conducted between local (Libyan) and imported (Chinese) garlic to evaluate their antibacterial activity against some isolated gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The study was carried out by using the agar well diffusion method at different aqueous extract concentrations (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). The results showed that distinct antibacterial effects on both types of garlic with some differences between local and imported garlic. However, the zone of inhibition was more against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli, respectively. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity increased with the increase of concentration. So, this study recommends that garlic should be used against bacterial infection and more studies may be done against other bacterial species, especially multidrug-resistance strains.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Phytochemical screening, antibacterial and anti-diabetic activities of moringa oleifera cultivated in east region of libya

Moringa oleifera, a very important healthful plant, is one amongst the foremost wide cultivated species of the family Moringaceae. It's extremely valued from past as a result of its large healthful properties. Moringa oleifera, native to India, grows within the tropical and climatic zone regions of the globe. It's commonly called drumstick tree or horseradish tree. Moringa will face up to each severe drought and gentle frost conditions and, therefore wide, cultivated across the globe. With its high alimentary values, each part of the tree is appropriate for either nutritional or commercial purposes. The leaves are rich in minerals, vitamins and alternative essential phytochemicals. Extracts from the leaves are useful in treatment of anemia, enhance breast milk in wet mothers. It's used as a potential antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and antimicrobial agent. Thus, this study was aim to investigate the phytoconstituents from ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the Moringa oleifera cultivated in Libya and to assess its anti-bacterial and anti-diabetics activity. The phytochemical investigations of these extracts of Moringa oleifera revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and phenolic compounds. The antibacterial activity of cold and hot extraction of methanolic and water extracts of Moringa oleifera by using the well diffusion method were assessed. Results revealed that there was a profound antibacterial activity of the studied Moringa oleifera against representatives of Gram-positive bacteria. After in vitro evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic properties of the ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera by testing its capacity to inhibit α-amylase activity, the methanolic extract exhibited inhibitory effect on the α-amylase enzyme.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Association between streptococcus bovis and colorectal cancer among libyan patients

Streptococcus bovis/gallolyticus was considered as lower grade pathogen involved in endocarditis. Recent accumulating evidence has suggested that Streptococcus bovis/gallolyticus plays an important role in the initiation and development of colorectal cancer. This study was aimed to address the association between Streptococcus bovis/gallolyticus and colorectal cancer among Libyan patients, to determine the dominant biotype of Streptococcus bovis/gallolyticus associated with colorectal cancer patients and to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibly patterns of isolated strains. The study involved 20 colorectal cancer patients, 20 patients with large adenomas polyp and 20 people with healthy colonic mucosa as a control group. All the candidates were subjected to colonoscopy and histopathological examinations and conformation. The suspected and normal cases were then diagnosed according to the protocol used by the medicine specialist and grouped in accord with the study aim. All biopsies were handled and treated to isolate the suspected positive colonies of Streptococcus bovis/gallolyticus. Of the 20 colorectal cancer patients, seven patients (35%) were found to be Streptococcus bovis/gallolyticus carriers, (95% CI 1.22 - 1.72, p < 0.05). Nine patients (45%) were diagnosed colorectal cancer positive at age above 60 years old, eight patients (40%) at age 40 - 60 years old and three patients (15%) at age bellow 40 years old. Also, nine out of 20 patients (45%) with large adenomas polyp were found to be Streptococcus bovis/gallolyticus carriers, (95% CI 2.16 - 2.71, p < 0.05). Of the 20 healthy people with colonic mucosa, Streptococcus bovis/gallolyticus never been isolated. Streptococcus. bovis biotype II/I and Streptococcus. equinis were both susceptible to the above mentioned antibiotic classes, although Streptococcus bovis biotype I was highly resistance to most clinically used antibiotics. However, there was strong relationship between Streptococcus bovis/gallolyticus and colorectal cancer or large polyp formation. However, it is not well understood whether the bacterium has a pathogenic role in the initiation and progression of neoplasia or just an epiphenomenon of colorectal neoplasms.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmacotherapy and associated risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is communicable disease which is common and often deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem in the world. The aim of this study is to assess prevalence and associated risk factors of pulmonary tuberculosis. Treatment and development of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were also considered. Drugs for Pulmonary tuberculosis confirmed cases used in calculating tuberculosis prevalence in Libya which is obtained from archive department of Abu Seta Hospital. Data obtained from 427 files during 2019 determine the incidence and epidemiology of tuberculosis in Libya. For a total of 427 confirmed cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, about 75.0% of the cases were male and most of the patients (55.0%) were within the age group of 20 - 40 years old. Of the study patients, 114 patients (26.7%) were viral infected and most of the viral infected cases were in the age group of 20 - 40 years and the majority of this age group patients (n = 41, 53.2%) were infected with HIV/HCV, while the least percentage in this group age were infected with HIV/HBsAg (01.3%). Among 427 cases, 73 cases (17.1%) were comorbid with other chronic diseases. Of the 73 cases, 54 cases (74.0%) were diabetes mellitus whereas only 1.4% of them had bronchial asthma, Parkinsonism and renal failure. The drug therapy of active tuberculosis disease needs combination chemotherapy to escape the selection of naturally occurring drug-resistant mutants. Amongst current anti tuberculosis drugs, the rifamycins hold the highest potential for shortening treatment and improving effects. Prevalence of smear positive tuberculosis and bacteriologically confirmed that a high rate of tuberculosis among unemployed population. This study reported that the highest incidence rate is found in people who are smokers.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Potential antibacterial activity of ethanolic fig and olive leaves extract against enterococcus faecalis

There has been an increasing awareness about the importance of herbal plants in therapeutic uses which are safe, efficient and induce little side effects This study was based on the evaluation of antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Oleaeuropaea (Olive tree) and Ficuscarica (Fig tree), alone and in combination, against enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) strain using well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration. The results revealed that the Oleaeuropaea leave extract is more potent than the Ficuscarica leave extract against E. faecalis, as the zone of inhibition was 23 mm and 3 mm, respectively. By mixing both extracts, the results showed a slight synergistic effect, as the zones of inhibition were 20 mm, 24 mm, 24 mm and 25 mm for 1:1, 1:3, 1:6 and 1:9 ratios of the Oleaeuropaea leave and the Ficuscarica leave extracts, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration for E. faecalis growth was 200 mg/ml for the Oleaeuropaea leave alone, Ficuscarica and mixed with Ficuscarica. The present findings conclude a potent antibacterial activity of the olive and fig leave, and, their potential as a source of drug in the treatment of E. faecalis infections is suggested.

Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences