India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.
In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.
Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.
One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.
As it is increasingly being reported from India, we carried out a prospective study of patients with culture-proven melioidosis from south India, examining clinical, laboratory features, epidemiological data, risk factors, treatments, outcomes at three and six months, and factors associated with mortality.Between 2014 and 2018, 31 cases were identified. Diabetes (83.9%) and alcohol abuse (58.1%) were common risk factors. Musculoskeletal, skin and soft tissue manifestations together constituted 48.4% of presentations, while 29% had pneumonia. During the intensive phase, 74.2% received one of three recommended antibiotic regimes, but 51.6% did not receive continuation treatment. Pneumonia and lack of continuation treatment were independently associated with a high mortality of 25.8%. Hot spots for melioidosis exist in India, and there is considerable diversity of presentation, including skin, soft tissue, musculoskeletal and neurological involvement. High rates of bacteraemia are shown.
Background: Exposure to cigarette smoke has been associated with pulmonary and reproductive dysfunctions; inflammatory response, oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in cigarette smoke have been implicated in the pathogenesis of these disorders. The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), a biomarker of inflammation and oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)), reproductive hormones (testosterone (TST), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)) cotinine and urinary PAH metabolite (1- hydroxypyrene (1-HOP)) were estimated in male active smokers. Methods: One hundred men aged 20-47 years, comprising 50 active male smokers and 50 non-smokers, were randomly recruited into this comparative cross-sectional study. The PEFR was measured using a peak flow meter, serum levels of cotinine, FSH, LH, TST, TNF-α, and urine 8-OHdG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and 1-HOP by high-performance liquid chromatography. Data analysis was done using a t-test and correlation analysis at p≤0.05. Results: Smokers had significantly higher cotinine (49.73±31.76 versus 0.51±0.69 ng/ml, p≤0.001), 8-OHdG (16.34±12.10 versus 5.79±2.14 ng/ml, p≤0.001) and lower PEFR (309.20±56.05 versus 452.80±45.76 L/min, p≤0.001) and LH (5.75±2.06 versus 6.97±2.79 mIU/ml, p=0.015) compared to non-smokers. Duration of exposure to cigarette smoke correlated positively with cotinine (r=0.937, p≤0.001) and 1-HOP (r=0.813, p≤0.001) while cotinine correlated positively with 1-HOP (r=0.863, p≤0.001) only in smokers. Conclusion: Reduced lung function and luteinizing hormone and concurrent increase in oxidative DNA damage associated with exposure to cigarette smoke may suggest the involvement of PAH-induced DNA damage in the development of pulmonary and reproductive impairment in smokers.
Community acquired pneumonia is a prevalent disease in the Emergency Department (ED). The literature reveals that clinical practice could not be related with guidelines recommendations. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of the implementation of the recommendations of the Spanish society of Emergency Medicine in the Hospital Clínico Universitario Lozano Blesa (Zaragoza) ED in the management of community acquired pneumonia. Use of Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) estimation was used to assess the adherence. This study was carried out from December, 2014 to February, 2015. Data was compared with the previous two months. The indicators management (discharge or admission decision, adequacy and anti-biotherapy) as well as the incidence of PSI estimation before and after the intervention in these parameters were evaluated. 209 patients were included, 97 before the intervention and 112 after the intervention. No significant differences were observed in the calculation of PSI. A significant decrease of admissions was observed after the intervention in the patients in whom the PSI was calculated (68.8% vs. 45.0%, p < 0.05). A greater use of the Observation Room was aimed at those patients in whom the PSI was calculated (06.3% vs. 17.5%, p < 0.05). PSI calculation significantly increased antibiotic prescription adherence (88.9% vs. 75.2%, p < 0.05). There were no modifications in the prescription after the intervention. In conclusion, PSI is a useful and effective measure to achieve a greater adherence to the recommendations. However, despite the positive trend in the use of the PSI and its interpretation, a low-intensity intervention is not sufficient to generalize its use.