India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.
In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.
A huge number of embedded devices offer their services to the end users in pervasive environments. Context-aware discovery is a rich and very dynamic system extensively applied for combining the different mobile devices, sensors, actuators and software functions. Existing knowledge-based system using the Common KADS (CKADS) system represent contextual information but algorithm are not effective in predicting the user behavior. Current Location-aware Private Service Discovery (LPSD) considers the discovery path for reducing the distributed topology and flooding operations. LPSD in pervasive environment is not effective in accurately locating the required service by searching method. To present an architecture principle for accurately predicting the user behavior in mobile-pervasive computing environment, Affluent Context Aware Systems based on the User Behavior (ACAS-UB) is proposed in this paper. ACAS-UB mechanism contains the class of mobile devices that can sense (i.e.,) search the physical pervasive environment. Affluent means effectively engaged mobile devices in ACAS-UB mechanism which uses the context information. The ACAS-UB context information contains the judgment of the similar users and also the response from the other users for improving the effectiveness in pervasive environment user behavior prediction. Master-slave concept is used in the ACAS-UB mechanism for the easy collection of response information from the different users. ACAS-UB mechanism construct the user profile initially from the context information, then performs the similarity measure and finally work is to predict the user behavior. ACAS-UB mechanism provides the hints which are necessary to explore different options, rather than just limiting the options in mobile-pervasive computing environment. ACASUB mechanism is experimented on the factors such as message overhead in pervasive environment, scalability and approximately 10 % lesser processing time.
Pets need special care and tracking system to track their path in case of lost. Due to our busy life style, this task is not simple as it used to be. The aim of this work is to design and implement smart pet house and tracking system. The objective of this paper is to allow pets owners to automate simple things like monitoring and tracking of the path of pets. Also lighting, feeding and air-conditioning controls. The proposed work addresses the implementation and analysis of a wireless sensor networks based pet location monitoring system for domestic scenarios. These systems describes, finding the path of lost pet using fitbit flex scale device and also using GPS tracker. Pet begin moving before you get a GPS signal, the tracker will calculate distance using steps and stride length as described above until a GPS signal is found.
Keeping an in depth tab of recent folks or folks on chair with bound health conditions for his or her health and safety is a very important task. With maturity, weak bones and weakness because of alternative health connected problems could lead to will increase risk of falling. A supervisor might not continually be on the market with them and if correct assistance is not provided at the correct time it should cause larger health considerations which will need extra resources for treatment. For this purpose we've projected a wise IOT Fall Detection System exploitation acceptable sensors that square measure integrated facilitate|to assist} report these incidents to assist avail help at the correct time to forestall additional injury to health. The same system uses sensors like associate degree measuring system to live the speed of the person, a rotating mechanism to live the person’s orientation so as to live their stability, a load sensing element once the system is employed by an individual employing a chair to live their weight, a Wi-Fi module and a microcontroller that sends the general readings to alert the involvedthose that shall give with the right suggests that to assist the person in want. The microcontroller receives all the info from the sensors and perpetually transmits and monitors the acceleration and also the orientation of the person. Any fast abrupt modification within the system which will result from a fall is taken into account as a ‘fall’ and is reported . a serious concern would be that not all fast movement may end up from a fall and be thought of as a matter of concern. To avoid this warning a napbutton is provided to snooze the system. This button will be ironed before a definite time say 15-30 seconds to prevent the system from causation the alert, thus avoiding any confusion and panic. this method will be mounted to the person’s chair or will be created compact to be created into a wearable device which will be worn on the hand.
How great would it be if you never forgot anything or never lost the ability to think and be creative? And just imagine how much more great it would be if your brain can be reconstructed so that it can stay young forever and be used to create wonders even after your death? It would be a great leap in the field of science if the brains of great minds like Steve Jobs or Albert Einstein can be recreated. That is exactly what the blue brain does. The blue brain project is an attempt to reconstruct the brain piece by piece and building a virtual brain in a supercomputer. It began in 2005 with an agreement between the EPFL and IBM, which supplied the Blue Gene/L supercomputer acquired by EPFL to build the virtual brain. The computing power needed is considerable. Each simulated neuron requires the equivalent of a laptop computer. A model of the whole brain would have billions. Supercomputing technology is rapidly approaching a level where simulating the whole brain becomes a concrete possibility. The main aim is to update the brain into a computer. As a first step, the project succeeded in simulating a rat cortical column. Efforts are now being made to simulate the human brain. In five years of work, Henry Mark ram’s team has perfected a facility that can create realistic models of one of the brains essential building blocks. This process is entirely data driven and essentially automatically executed on the supercomputer. This modeling will expand to all the areas of the brain and if successful, shed light on the relationships between genetic, molecular and cognitive functions of the brain. These models will be basic building blocks for larger scale models leading towards a complete virtual brain.
Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.
One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.
Background In 2016, the Tanzanian government shifted the vaccine supply chain responsibilities from the Medical Store Department (MSD) to the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) to reduce costs. However, cost estimates that informed the decision were based on invoice value of vaccines and related supplies, rather than a proper economic evaluation study. Therefore, this study aims to compare the actual storage and distribution costs of vaccines and related supplies between MSD to EPI. Method Micro-costing approach was used to estimate resource use at MSD and EPI for the year 2018. Data were collected through a review of documents, warehouse databases, and interviews with key staff at MSD and EPI. We included both capital and recurrent costs. Microsoft Excel® was used for analysis with input data from the UNICEF forecasting tool, WHOs vaccine volume and capacity estimation tool, diesel generator calculator, and supply chain service fee estimator version 1.02. Results The total vaccine storage and distribution costs were estimated to be USD 1,996,286 at MSD and USD 543,648 at EPI. Distribution and program management costs represented 41% (USD 819,288) and 38% (USD 762,968) of the total costs at MSD, while storage and distribution costs represented 43% (USD 234,423) and 34% (USD 184,620) of the total costs at EPI, respectively. The cost drivers at MSD were fuel and transport (21%), receiving and dispatch (19%) and, program management personnel cost (14%), while at EPI were storage space (20%), program management personnel cost (18%) and fuel and transport (15%). Conclusion The storage and distribution of vaccines in Tanzania via the EPI reduced the vaccine supply chain cost to about 27% of the program costs at MSD.
Motherhood has true nobility and unique capacities. Pregnancy and childbirth are special events in women’s lives. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of Infra-red radiation therapy on pain perception and wound healing among primi postnatal women with episiotomy in Christian mission hospital, Madurai. The study was conducted among 60 postnatal women, 30 in experimental group and 30 in control group, who were selected by using purposive sampling technique. Data collection was done as planned 6 weeks were taken for data collection procedure. The data gathered were analyzed and the interpretation was made on the study objectives. The paired‘t’ test and independent‘t’ test were used to find out the effectiveness of infrared radiation therapy. Comparison of pain perception and wound healing status values between pre-test and post-test, experimental and control group showed a significant difference at 0.05 levels. The study concluded that the infrared radiation therapy was effective in reducing episiotomy pain and wound healing. Therefore, infra-red radiation therapy should be used to augment the therapy of episiotomy. Keywords: Pain perception, Wound healing, Episiotomy, Infrared lamp
World Health Organization (WHO) estimation disclosed over 116 million girls (3.4%) area unit stricken by PCOS worldwide. The predisposing risk factors embrace genetic science, system, lifestyle/environment, fatness that contributes to the event of PCOS. it's calculable that between 5 to ten % of U.S. girls of childbearing age have PCOS. that is regarding five million girls, which makes the condition one among the foremost common secretion endocrine disorders among girls of generative age. A study to assess the prevalence of PCOS among adolescent women at hand-picked setting, Chennai. Objective: to assess the prevalence of PCOS among adolescent women. Methodology: A non-experimental descriptive analysis style was adopted during this study. The non-probability convenient sampling technique was accustomed choose the sample size of two hundred adolescent Girls. The assessment of the prevalence of PCOS was administrated employing a self-reported check list through a Googletype. A survey link was sent to the respondents, via email and WhatsApp& teams. knowledge was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: our Majority (36.5%) of the samples had gentle & moderate PCOS symptoms and twenty-sevenths had severe symptoms. relating to physical activity, the bulk (38%) of the samples had gentle physical activity, thirty-fourth had moderate physical activity and twenty-eighth had severe activity. There was a direct correlation between PCOS symptoms and Physical activity. There was a statistically vital relationship between PCOS symptoms with age, religion, academic standing, dietary habits, previous information, supply of data, the cycle of emission and BMI and there was a statistically vital relationship between physical activity with age, Religion, academic standing, monthly family financial gain, age at the time of start, previous information, supply of data, variety of family, Cycleof emission & BMI. Conclusion: PCOS among adolescents is a rising problem that wants careful assessment, timely intervention, and appropriate treatment. Diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence remains a challenge attributable to overlapping symptoms of PCOS with traditional time of life changes in adolescents. life-style modifications for weight reduction and dietary modifications and psychological content plays vital role in these young ladies for preventing long run complications. Keywords: Poly cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), Prevalence, PCOS symptoms, Physical activity, Adolescent Girls.
COVID-19 is associate communicable disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. It's currently a virulent disease unfold moving several countries globally. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and practices of COVID-19 among general public at the selected setting, Chennai. The main objective was to assess the knowledge and practice on COVID-19, correlate the knowledge with practice on COVID-19, and associate the knowledge and practice on COVID-19 with the demographic variables among the public. A Quantitative non-experimental analysis style was used to assess the knowledge and practice of COVID-19. Sixty individuals were chosen through the non-probability convenience sampling technique. The findings of the analysis disclosed that the majority (40%) of the samples had a high level of knowledge and 43.3% of them had a good practice, 33.3% of them had a moderate level of knowledge and 30% of them had moderate practice, whereas 26.7% of them had a low level of knowledge and 26.7% of them had poor practice on COVID 19. Keywords:- COVID-19, Knowledge, Practice, Pandemic, General Public.
During the last few years, the pharmacy profession has expanded significantly in terms of professional services delivery and now has been recognized as an important profession in the multidisciplinary provision of health care. The paper highlights the current scenario of The Pharmacy profession in the health care system. The pharmacist is a backbone that strengthens to the health care system. Different roles of Pharmacist in different sectors of the pharmacy profession like Industrial, academics, community health, clinical research, drug design and discovery, developing NDDS etc. In nutshell, pharmacist plays an integral part in the health care system. “Physician gives medicine to the patients but life to the medicine given by pharmacist”. Role of Pharmacist in Health Care System
Dengue is an acute infection disease caused by a flavi virus (species Dengue virus of the genus Flavi virus), transmitted by female mosquito aedes mosquito, infection has globally become a major public health concern since the incidence of the dengue fever has increased more than 30-fold over the last decades. The dengue fever has been a most important public health problems since many years and the various outbreak of the dengue cases has been seen time to time. One of the reasons for the increasing and time to time outbreak of the dengue may be the reason of climate change, global warming, lack of knowledge about signs, symptoms, transmission, preventive measure and lack of ignorance or lack of the preventive practice of the dengue fever. Method: Descriptive, cross-sectional study on 192 head of household's was study population residing in Kanchan RM, Rupandehi Respondent was selected using Non probability judgmental sampling techniques by face-to-face interview was used. Result shows 58.3% good knowledge and 62% good practice. Knowledge was found to be associated with Age, Types of family, Size of family, educational level and Family suffered from dengue. Preventive practice was found to be associated with the Ever heard from health professional. Study will contribute towards development of appropriate policy strategies at local level that will tackle the problem associated with the knowledge and preventive practice of DF and provide a basis for future research on this area. Inferential analysis shows that there is significant association between the level of knowledge with age, types of family, size of family, educational level and family suffered from dengue and the level of preventive practice was associated with the ever heard from health professional.
Contact between pharmaceutical company representatives (PCRs) and medical practitioners is viewed by drug companies as a vital part of their marketing strategy. Studies show that PCRs employ persuasion disguised as information. Because PCRs are keenly involved in competitive marketing, they are more likely to use persuasion than information during their promotional visits. Information increases customer awareness of a particular product without influencing the preferences. Persuasive marketing directly influences a consumer’s brand preference. Positively influencing a prescriber’s attitude towards a product is essential for effective marketing since there is an association between attitude, intention and behaviour. Numerous studies find that pharmaceutical promotional interactions have an impact on physician’s perceptions and their prescribing practices. Yet, many of today's health professionals do not acknowledge their vulnerability to being misled by pharmaceutical marketing. This study demonstrate that Pharmaceutical promotion strategies do not differ greatly from those of other types of marketing, PCRs more likely to use persuasion to highlight the perceived difference of their particular brand. Persuasion often has a subtle influence that is not easy to detect and physicians should receive education regarding the drug promotion techniques used by pharmaceutical companies. Persuasion often has a subtle influence that is not easy to detect. Overconfidence is a major risk factor for being misled. This analysis highlights some critical aspects of persuasive communication by PCRs in promotional visits. It will help prescribers to interpret, evaluate and respond appropriately to manipulative behaviour by PCRs.
Diabetes is a global issue, the diabetes epidemic is expected to continue, and the burden of diabetes causes catastrophic expenditure for healthcare system. The current study aimed to determine the presentation, the clinical feature and cardio-vascular risk factors in patients with diabetes. A retrospective observational study had been conducted in out-patients department at Almustaqpal Almosherq Centre during September, 2013 till September, 2020, the total number of attended out-patients department were 1 024, 820 patients who were selected for this study. A special perform was completed for every patient, which included details about patient’s demographics, points in clinical history, relevant investigations and clinical examinations were recorded. The study reported that out of 820 patients, 66% (n = 538) was female and their age range was between 14 - 87 years with a mean age of 56.53 ± 13.49 years, 96% (n = 791) were clinically diagnosed as type II diabetes, 07% of the patients were diagnosed as pre-diabetes, the duration of diabetes ranged from newly diagnosed to more than 10 years, with 46% (n = 379) of the studied population were more than 10 years diabetes duration, 70% (581) were presented with classical symptoms of diabetes. Initial treatment for diabetes also different in the studied sample, were absent of anti-diabetic medications in 30% (n = 248) of the patients, they refused to start glucose lowering drugs, 34.6% (n = 284) of them have morbid obesity (body mass index is more than 40), 80% (n = 662) have high HBA1c (more than 8 g%), 40.3% (n = 240/596) were uncontrolled hypertension on anti-hypertension drugs, 95.6% (n = 682/713) were controlled on treatment of lipid lowering drugs. This study showing the presentation of diabetes were the common, type II diabetes, at age group between 41 - 66 years about 65%, female sex, with high body mass index, high glycated hemglobulin and uncontrolled hypertension. There is concern that diabetic patients were occurring at a high frequency in younger adults, where longer duration of illness could increase the risk of developing more complications in later life. The rate of coexist cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity) in Libyan patients with diabetes is highlighted.