Pelvic inϑlammatory disease (Waram al-Rahim)is one of the most serious gynaecological infections of the upper female genital tract with the worldwide annual rate of 10-20/1000 women of reproductive age. The objective planned for the study was to evaluate the effect of Sharbat-e-Deenar in uncomplicated Pelvic Inϑlammatory Disease (uPID). A pre and post observational single group clinical study was carried out in the Department of IlmulQabalatwaAmrazeNiswan, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Hospital, Bengaluru. Diagnosed cases (n=30) of uPID were included in the study. Patients with complicated PID, history of antibiotic therapy within seven days of recruitment; delivery, abortion or gynecologic surgery within the last 30 days, systemic diseases, malignancies, pregnancy & lactation were excluded. Sharbate-Deenarconsists of Poste baikhekasniandTukhmekasni(Cichorium intybus Linn.), Gulesurkh (Rosa damascene mill.), Tukhmekasoos(CuscutarelexaRoxb.) and Rewandchini (Rheum emodiWall. ex Meissn) were administered orally in a dose of 20 ml twice daily for 14 days. Outcome measures were 30-70% clinical improvement in Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score for lower abdominal pain and McCormack Pain Scale (McPS) score for abdominopelvic tenderness and White Blood Cells (WBCs) count <10 on saline microscopy of discharge. Data were analyzed using paired Student ‘t’ test, Wilcoxon Signed rank test and Paired Proportion test.Clinical improvement of 30-70% in McPS and VAS score was achieved in 96.7% (p<0.001**) and 93.3% (p<0.001**) patients respectively. WBCs count <10 on saline microscopy of discharge was achieved in 70% patients (p<0.001**).Sharbat-e-Deenarwas effective in improving the sign & symptoms of PID due to its anti-microbial, anti-inϑlammatory, antispasmodic and anti-oxidant properties. No adverse effect of the research drug was encountered during the study. Hence, Sharbat-e-Deenar serves as an effective alternative in patients with PID, proving the research hypothesis.
Background and objectives: Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is the most common clinical presentation of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). The objective designed for the study was to evaluate the effect of a Unani formulation in HMB (Kaṭhrat-i-Tamṭh). Methods: An open observational single arm clinical study was carried out at the Department of Ilmul Qabalat wa Amraze Niswan, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Hospital, Bengaluru. Diagnosed cases (n=30) of HMB with pelvic pathology were included in the study. Unani formulation comprises of Khurma (Phoenix dactylifera Linn), Rasaut (Berberis aristata), Talmakhana (Asteracantha longifolia Linn), Lodh pathani (SymplocosracemosaRoxb) was administered orally in powder form in a dose of 3g with 2g sugar, twice daily for seven days/cycle for three consecutive cycles.Main outcome measures were clinical response of 30-50% in menstrual blood loss (MBL) assessed with pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC) and duration of bleeding (DOB). Improvement in Hb% and quality of life (QOL) assessed with menorrhagia impact questionnaire (MIQ). Data were analyzed using paired Student ‘t’ test, Results: Clinical response of 30-50% in MBL and DOB was achieved in 86.7% (p< 0.001**) and 56.7% (p< 0.001**) patients respectively and improvement in Hb% and QOL was achieved in 16.7% (p=0.228) and 100% (p< 0.001**) patients respectively. Conclusion:Unani formulation had a significant effect in controlling the bleeding by reduction in MBL and DOB with improvement in QOL
India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.
In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.
Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.
One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.
Objective: This study was conducted to investigate traditional beliefs and practices of women regarding care of the mother and the infant during pregnancy, in childbirth, and in the postpartum period. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted at a public hospital in Istanbul. The data collected consisted of socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics, and responses to questions about some traditional customs regarding pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period. Results: In our research, some non-harmful cultural practices were found, such as the belief that to have a clever and beautiful baby the mother should eat fruit; that to have a healthy and peaceful pregnancy, the mother should not look upon ugly things; the mother should indulge her food cravings; and to have an easy birth, the mother should walk and focus on prayers. On the other hand, we also found beliefs that could be harmful, such as wiping the mouth of a baby with a date before breastfeeding, and practices believed to be protective that could cause harm, such as putting a knife under the baby’s bed, fastening a safety pin to the baby’s clothes, and for the mother and child to remain at home for 40 days. Conclusion: While non-harmful and beneficial practices related to maternal and infant health should be accepted and supported as a part of our cultural richness, practices that could be harmful should be prevented in pregnancy classes or with training upon hospital discharge
Thrombocytopenia is a recurrent hematological disturbance in pregnancy. In pregnant women with thrombocytopenia, the risk of excessive bleeding during or after child-birth is high, particularly when they require a cesarean section, other surgery during pregnancy, labor or in the puerperium period. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Tripoli University Hospital, Libya. A cross-sectional analysis was used to determine the prevalence thrombocytopenia in pregnant women attending prenatal care services from July to December, 2020 at Tripoli University Hospital. A structured pretested questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic data, nutritional factors, obstetrics and gynecological factors, history and clinical conditions. Venous blood samples were collected for platelet count and other platelet parameters, which determined by using Sysmex automation. A total of 72 participated women; about 40%, 35% and 259% of the participants were in the third, second and first trimester, respectively. The mean number of children that women have was 2, with 2.7% having just one child and 47% having three or more children. This study concluded that the prevalence of thrombocytopenia and mostly with mild form is 8.3% and as being greater among pregnant women living in rural areas. Health care providers should do thrombocytopenia test regularly for every pregnant woman in order to prevent excessive bleeding during pregnancy, especially whom living in rural areas.