Objective: To determine the association between oral health literacy, oral hygiene and gingival health status. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among patients attending University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. Data were collected through interviewer-administered questionnaires. Index used in this study for estimating oral health literacy levels was Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry- 30 (REALD-30). The participant’s oral hygiene status was assessed using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index while gingival health was assessed using the Gingival Index. Results: Two hundred and eight participants with 130 (62.5%) males and 78 (37.5%) females formed the population of the study and their mean age was 28.32 ± 10.5 years. The prevalence of low oral health literacy was 86 (41.3%). The oral hygiene status of most of the participants 100 (48.1) was fair. The prevalence of gingivitis was 58.2%. Oral health literacy had significant statistical negative correlation with age, oral hygiene and gingival health status. Oral health literacy consistently emerged as a predictor of oral hygiene and gingival health status. Conclusion: Majority of the participants with low oral health literacy had fair/poor oral hygiene status (p = 0.000, OR= 17.870, 95% CI = 7.320-43.627) and gingivitis (p = 0.000, OR= 7.054, 95% CI = 3.514-14.164).
India is a country of immense diversity. It is home to people of many different racial, languages, ethnic, religious, and national backgrounds. Groups of people in India differ from each other not only in physical or demographic characteristics but also in distinctive patterns of behavior and these patterns are determined by social and cultural factors like language, region, religion, and caste. Apart from behaviour, economic development, level of education and political culture of the people in various social segments differ from region to region. More you can say that economy and cultures have been enriched by the contributions of migrants from round the globe. In an increasingly globalised world, migratory movements is continuously shaping the countries all over the world. Some countries like India and Ireland, which set the example of economic development and social integration, have the positive impact of the migration by globalisation and some countries like USA, which recently witness racism, xenophobia and discrimination have the negative impact on the migrants. It does not mean India do not face fragmentation and USA do not have cohesion. USA have many stories which show successful integration process, that facilitated the lives of immigrant communities, but being a developed country it still suffers from cultural alienation. In these countries, borders are built within borders to create cultural divides that do not allow people to integrate. Recently, this problem has become more prominent due to the rise of terrorism, clash of cultures in the world, leading to the glorification of stereotypes. People are becoming less accepting towards anyone who does not belong to their region. Migration does not stop after people move from one place to another place. The main question start after that ‘now what’ they will do. That is why this topic needs to be discussed thoroughly in order to find better solutions. This paper will begin with an analysis of different approaches to Migration, discuss the target groups for integration policies, provide indicators of the current situation of migrants and proceed to an analysis of integration tools: legislation, social policies and participatory processes. It will focus not only on the impact of migration but also on social integration, mix culture like indo-western culture in a comparative basis.
In this paper, investigations are made to analyze the human body temperature during wound healing process due to surgery. Wound is considered after the skin graft. Skin graft is a technique used in plastic surgery. Skin is the first line of defense between the human and environment, it is very susceptible to damage. Internal body or core temperature (Tb) is one of the clinical vital signs along with pulse and respiratory rates. Any disturbance in body temperature will drive complexities in wound healing process. These studies are important in the mechanism of establishing the limits of thermal regulation of human body during the healing process in different situations and conditions. The Finite element method is used to analyze tissues temperature for normal tissues (donor site) and abnormal tissues (tissues after surgery). Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Numerical results are obtained using Crank Nicolson Method.
Physically unclonable function (PUF) is a hardware security module preferred for hardware feature based random number and secret key generation. Security of a cryptographic system relies on the quality of the challenge-response pair, it is necessary that the key generation mechanism must unpredictable and its response should constant under different operating condition. Metastable state in CMOS latch is undesirable since it response becomes unpredictable, this feature used in this work to generate a unique response. A feedback mechanism is developed which forces the latch into the metastable region; after metastable state, latch settle to high or state depends on circuit internal condition and noise which cannot be predicted. Obtained inter hamming variation for 8 PUF is 51% and average intra hamming distance is 99.76% with supply voltage variation and 96.22% with temperature variation.
One of the unique features of Indian society is prevalence of caste system which was originated thousands of years back to demarcate the people engaged in different occupation or jobs. Initially it was not much rigid but gradually people belonging to upper castes for their own selfish means to maintain their monopoly made this arrangement hereditary and started treating people of lower castes disgracefully. For preservation of this system, people started controlling their women to prevent inter-caste marriages and the concept of endogamy came up. This robbed away many types of freedom from women. For women belonging to lower castes, this situation is worse as they are doubly subjugated on the basis on caste as well as gender. Men belonging to their own caste treat them as secondary beings. This paper throws light on this intersection. How intersection of these two kinds of inequalities place them at the lowest position in Indian society. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar rises as their leader who all his life worked for empowerment of downtrodden section of society. He argues that education is the primary tool for evading these differences among people. He further emphasizes to adopt the concept of exogamy to break the backbone of Indian caste system and to immediately leave a religion or culture which legitimizes such system of inequality among people of the same land.
Adenoid Facies and its Management: An Orthodontic Perspective Adenoid facies is a disorder which refers to the open-mouthed face of children who have long faces with adenoid hypertrophy. Hypertrophy of the lymphoid tissues in the throat (the adenoids) is the most common cause of nasal obstruction in children. The mouth is always open because upper airway congestion/narrowing has made patients obligatory mouth breathers. Persistent mouth breathing is seen due to nasal obstruction in children and it may be associated with the development of craniofacial anomalies such as the adenoid facies (also called the “long face syndrome”). The most common symptoms are habitual mouth breathing and snoring. The most dangerous symptom is sleep apnea due to obstruction. This article discusses the orthodontic aspects of diagnosis and treatment of adenoid facies.